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Chapter 10: Agriculture . 10.2 . Five Principle Features Distinguish Commercial Agriculture from Subsistence: . Purpose of farming Percentage of farmers in the labor force Use of machinery Farm size Relationship of farming to other businesses . Chapter 10.2 . Shifting Cultivation

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five principle features distinguish commercial agriculture from subsistence
Five Principle Features Distinguish Commercial Agriculture from Subsistence:

Purpose of farming

Percentage of farmers in the labor force

Use of machinery

Farm size

Relationship of farming to other businesses

chapter 10 2
Chapter 10.2

Shifting Cultivation

Pastoral Nomadism

shifting cultivation
Shifting Cultivation
  • Two features:
    • land is cleared by slashing and burning debris
      • Slash and burn
      • Axes
      • Cut down most of the trees
      • Swidden= the cleared area
    • Farm crops on a cleared field for a couple of years and then leave it for many years so the soil can recover
      • Why move locations?
shifting cultivation1
Shifting Cultivation
  • Types of crops: vary by region
    • Rice= SE Asia
    • Corn (maize)=Americas
    • Millet= Africa
  • Brazilian shift farming order:
    • Concentric rings
      • Inner rings: sweet potatoes and yams
      • Next: corn and rice, manioc, more yams
      • Outter: Papaya, banana, pineapple, mango, cotton, beans
  • LDCs: “farm field” is much more chaotic than in MDCs
shifting cultivation2
Shifting Cultivation
  • Land owned by the village
    • Whole > individual
    • ¼ of the world’s land
    • 5% of the worlds population
      • Not surprising…why not?
  • Declining in tropics
  • Can only support a small population in an area without causing environmental damage
          • Deforestation of rain forests , esp. in Latin America
            • Large number of trees cut, burning and decay can release large volumes of…
            • Carbon dioxide
pastoral nomadism
Pastoral Nomadism
  • Pastoral nomadism = herding domesticated animals
    • found primarily in arid and semiarid B-type climates
    • animals are seldom eaten
      • the size of the herd indicates power and prestige
    • type of animal depends on the region
      • Camels= N. Africa & SW Asia,
      • Horse=Central Asia
    • transhumance, or seasonal migration, practiced use of pastures, or areas on which animals feed
    • often use similar patterns of migration, not random
    • no longer seen as stage of agriculture, but type of agric.
      • adaptation to environment
    • declining in numbers worldwide

Identify two features of shifting cultivation

pastoral nomadism1
Pastoral Nomadism
  • Pastoral nomads depend on animals rather than crops
    • i.e. animals provide milk, skin/hair.
  • Mostly consume grains rather than meats
  • Animals usually not slaughtered, but once dead may be eaten
  • Animals:
    • Camels= long periods without water, carry heavy bags, move quickly
    • Goats= tough and agile and can survive on almost any vegetation
pastoral nomadism2
Pastoral Nomadism
  • Today it is declining partly because of modern technology.
    • Why??
intensive subsistence agriculture
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  • ¾ of the world’s people live in LDCs and the form of agriculture that feeds them= Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  • East, South, Southeast Asia
  • Most of the work done by hand or with animals b/c of the lack of funds
  • Virtually no land wasted
  • I.e.:
    • Wet-rice farming (Review textbook for the specifics)
    • Dry lands farming various grains using crop rotation
      • Rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
plantation farming
Plantation Farming

Commercial agriculture in tropics and subtropics esp. Latin America, Africa, Asia

Found in LDCs, owned by MDCs and sold to MDCs

Plantation= large farm that specializes in one or more crops

Sugarcane, cotton, coffee, rubber, tobacco, cocoa, bananas, tea, coconuts.

Must import workers and provide housing, food because plantations are isolated

USA history with plantations= in the south with cotton, declined after the…