Thinking, Intelligence, and LanguageChapter 8 AP Psychology Alice F. Short Hilliard Davidson High School
Chapter Overview • Cognitive Revolution in Psychology • Thinking • Intelligence • Language • Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Health and Wellness
The Cognitive Revolution • cognition – how information is processed and manipulated when remembering, thinking, and knowing • 1950s: psychology resumes focus on the mind and mental processes • computers: an analogy for the mind/brain • physical brain = hardware • cognition = software • artificial intelligence (AI) • computers: complex, fixed rules • humans: ambiguous information
Cognitive Psychology • cognitive psychology – approaches that sought to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that we cannot directly observe
Thinking • concepts • problem solving • reasoning and decision making • thinking critically and creatively Verbs to Explain Thinking: • forming solving deciding reflecting
Concepts • concepts – mental categories used to group objects, events, and characteristics • allow us to generalize • allow us to associate experiences and objects • aid in memory by making it for efficient • provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience • can cause problems when applied to people • basic component of thinking • prototype model – all instances of a concept are compared to a prototype (ideal example) of that concept • use characteristic properties to create a representation for each concept
Levi Hutchins, The Least Popular Man, Ever… • Levi Hutchins: • problem: wanted to wake up at 4 a.m. every day • problem solving: invented alarm clock • conclusion: Levi Hutchins = evil • problem solving – the mental process of finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available
Steps in Problem Solving • Find and frame problem • Develop good problem-solving strategies (subgoals, algorithms, heuristics) • Evaluate solutions • criteria for success? (finishing paper, getting and A, writing something worthy of publication…) • Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time • Problem Solvers: • motivated to improve past performances • motivated to make original contributions
Problem Solving Strategies (Step 2) • subgoals – intermediate goals or intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution • working backwards • Example: Planning different “dates” to have tasks completed working on a paper. • algorithms – strategies—including formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions—that guarantee a solution to a problem • Examples: following a recipe, following directions driving • Question: Is an algorithm always possible? • heuristics – shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer • What letter do you need in Scrabble if you have a “Q”?
Problem Solving Obstacles • fixation • using a prior strategy only • failing to find “fresh” perspective • functional fixedness • fixated on usual functions (trouble being creative and finding other solutions for items) • Maier String Problem (Figure 8.2-3, p. 246, overcoming functional fixedness) • thinking outside the box – exploring novel ways of approaching tasks and challenges and finding solutions
A SHORT Time to Ponder:Thinking Outside the Box • “Students who are used to succeeding in high school by cramming for tests and relying on parental pressure to get homework done may find that in college these strategies are no longer viable ways to success.” • How could a student in this position “think outside the box” to become a successful college student?
Reasoning • reasoning - mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions • inductive reasoning • driven by data; bottom-up; specific general • deductive reasoning “d = duh” • driven by logic; top-down; general specific
Decision Making • evaluating alternatives and making choices among them • attempting to maximize outcome
Reasoning and Decision Making • System I – automatic • rapid, heuristic, intuitive • more accurate in making quick complex decisions • textbook example: looking at apartments • System II – controlled • slower, effortful, analytical
Decision-Making Biases • Confirmation Bias • search only for info that supports our ideas • Hindsight Bias • report falsely that we predicted an outcome • Availability Heuristic • predict probability based on ease of recall • Base-Rate Fallacy • ignore info about general principles • Representativeness Heuristic • make judgments based on stereotypes (jocks, etc.)
Critical Thinking • critical thinking - thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence • mindfulness – alert and mentally present • open-mindedness – receptive to new/other ways of looking at things
Emotion and Cognition • moods influence the way we think • bad moods >> use careful logic to solve problems • good moods >> efficiency, originality, creativity, ignore irrelevant info
A SHORT Time to Ponder: Intersection • Emotion and Cognition: How Are You Feeling and Thinking Today? • positive moods vs. negative moods
Creative Thinking • Divergent versus Convergent Thinking • Characteristics of Creative Thinkers • brainstorm • flexibility and playful thinking • inner motivation • willingness to face risk • objective evaluation of work
Intelligence • What is intelligence? • definitions of intelligence reflect culture • U.S. – Spearman’s g • general intelligence “jack of all trades” • intelligence (U.S.) – all-purpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems and to learn from experience • measuring intelligence • validity • reliability • standardization
Intelligence Tests • Binet – Mental Age (MA) • mental age surpasses chronological age = more intelligent than average • chronological age surpasses mental age = less intelligent than average • mental age equals chronological age = average = 100 IQ • Stern – Intelligence Quotient (IQ) • normal distribution • Stanford-Binet Test
Influences on Testing • Cultural Bias in Testing • culture-fair tests (e.g., Raven Progressive Matrices) • difficult to create • can be biased because question is more likely to be in one groups knowledge in comparison to another (When is Christmas? = biased) • Genetic Influences on Intelligence • heritability • increases with age • Environmental Influences on Intelligence • Flynn effect – IQ test scores increased over decades
Variations in Intelligence • Giftedness: usually IQ ≥ 130 • Terman – socially well adjusted and successful as adults • importance of innate ability
Variations in Intelligence • Intellectual disability: usually IQ < 70 • organic versus cultural-familial disabilities • mild, moderate and severe/profound • adaptive behavior deficits • conceptual skills – literacy and understanding of numbers, money and time • social skills – interpersonal skills , responsibly, self-esteem, ability to follow rules and obey • practical skills – activities of daily living such as personal care, occupational skills, health care, travel/transportation, and use of the telephone
A SHORT Time to Ponder • Why do you think the ‘termites” became experts in well-established fields—but not major creators or innovators? • Why do you think those involved in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) did?
Theories of Multiple Intelligences • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • analytical intelligence • creative intelligence • practical intelligence
Theories of Multiple Intelligences • Gardner’s Frames of Mind • verbal • mathematical • spatial • bodily-kinesthetic • interpersonal • intrapersonal • naturalist • existentialist • musical
Evaluating Multiple Intelligences • Why is their controversy over multiple intelligence theories? • undertaking complex cognitive task led to enhanced reasoning ability • the more participants trained, the smarter they got • intelligence is not a skill you master (continuous improvement) • keep challenging self to think about thins in increasingly new, and sometimes difficult ways
Language • Language • form of spoken, written, or signed communication based on symbols • Infinite Generativity • ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences
Structure of Language • phonology - basic phonemes (sounds) • 0-6 months • example: sp, ba, ar • not English examples: xt, zx, pq • morphology - rules for word formation • example: help + er • syntax - rules for combining words to form phrases and sentences • grammar • semantics - meaning of words and sentences • example: woman vs. girl • pragmatics - use of language • purposefulness of language
Language and Cognition • Can you think without using language? • Benjamin Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesize • “language determines thought” • not entirely accurate • reporting in English – outgoing, nicer, more responsible • thus… language influences cognition • role of cognition in language • role of language in cognition
William’s Syndrome • William’s syndrome • 1/20,000 births • extraordinary verbal, social and musical abilities • extremely low IQ and difficulty with motor task and numbers • thus: language and thought are not part of a single system (separate, but related)
A SHORT Time to PonderGender and Language • Gender Differences in Language • Are women more talkative?
Influences on Language • Biological Influences • language universals • language milestones • left hemispheric specialization • Broca’s area – speech production • Wernicke’s area – language comprehension • hippocampus – fully developed at 9 mos. attach meaning to words
Influences on Language • Environmental Influences • behavioral view (learned skill) • language exposure (case of Genie) • middle class: 2,100 words an hour • welfare: 600 words an hour – by age 4, 13 million few words heard
Not Sucking as a Parent • Be an active conversional partner. • a.k.a. talk to your kid(s) • Talk as if the infant will understand what you are saying. • a.k.a. try not talking to them like they are stupid • Use a language style with which you feel comfortable. • a.k.a. your child will know if you are being a poser and are completely uncomfortable… fo’ sho’
Learning a Second Language as an Adult • Sensitive Periods in Language Learning • new sounds/accent and new grammar • new vocabulary • overriding learned habits • cognitively stretching ourselves away from assumption
Thinking, Problem Solving, and Health and Wellness • cognitive appraisal – individual interpretation of the events in their lives as harmful, threatening or challenging and their determination of whether they have the resources to cope effectively with the events • primary appraisal – individual interpret whether an event involves • harm or loss that has already occurred • a threat of some future danger • a challenge to be overcome • secondary appraisal • evaluate resources • efficiently use resources to cope with event • coping – managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life’s problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress • cognitive reappraisal – regulating one’s feelings about an experience by reinterpreting that experience or thinking about it in a different way or from a different angle • decreased negative feelings • decreased activation of amygdala • increased activation of prefrontal cortex
Chapter Summary • Describe cognitive psychology and discuss the role of the computer in the development of the field. • Explain the processes and human limitations in problem solving, reasoning, and decision making. • Describe intelligence and its measurement. • Discuss influences on intelligence and types of intelligence. • Identify the connections between language and thought and summarize how language is acquired and develops. • Discuss the importance of cognitive appraisal with respect to stress and describe various styles of coping.
Chapter Summary • Cognitive Revolution • considered revolutionary departure from behaviorism • Thinking • prototype model of concepts • problem-solving steps and barriers • reasoning and decision making • inductive, deductive, and intuitive • biases • critical and creative thinking
Chapter Summary • Intelligence • IQ tests: measurement, Binet, normal curve • influences on intelligence test scores • extremes and types of intelligence • Language • structure, development, and influences • Thinking, Problem-Solving, and Health and Wellness • cognitive appraisal and coping strategies