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Thinking and Intelligence. Chapter 9. Thinking and Intelligence. Thought: Using what we know Reasoning rationally Barriers to reasoning rationally Measuring intelligence: The psychometric approach Dissecting intelligence: The cognitive approach Animal minds. Thought: Using What We Know.

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thinking and intelligence1
Thinking and Intelligence
  • Thought: Using what we know
  • Reasoning rationally
  • Barriers to reasoning rationally
  • Measuring intelligence: The psychometric approach
  • Dissecting intelligence: The cognitive approach
  • Animal minds
thought using what we know
Thought: Using What We Know
  • The elements of cognition.
  • How conscious is thought?
the elements of cognition
The Elements of Cognition
  • Concept
    • Mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.
    • A basic concept has a moderate number of instances and is easier to acquire.
    • A prototype is an especially representative example of a concept.
  • Proposition
    • A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea.
the elements of cognition1
The Elements of Cognition
  • Cognitive Schema
    • An integrated mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world.
  • Mental Image
    • A mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents.
how conscious is thought
How Conscious is Thought?
  • Subconscious Processes
    • Mental processes occurring outside of conscious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary.
  • Nonconscious Processes
    • Mental processes occurring outside of and not available to conscious awareness.
    • Implicit learning occurs when you have:
      • acquired knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so, and without being able to state exactly what you have learned.
how conscious is thought1
How Conscious is Thought?
  • Mindlessness
    • We may act, speak, and make decisions out of habit, without stopping to analyze what we are doing or why.
    • Keeps people from recognizing when a change in a situation requires a change in behaviour.
    • Mindless processing of information has obvious benefits, but can also lead to errors and mishaps.
reasoning rationally
Reasoning Rationally
  • Formal reasoning: Algorithms and logic
  • Informal reasoning: Heuristics and dialectical thinking
  • Reflective judgment
formal reasoning algorithms and logic
Formal Reasoning: Algorithms and Logic
  • Deductive Reasoning
    • A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion necessarily follows from a set of observations or propositions (premises).
  • Inductive Reasoning
    • A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion probably follows from a set of observations or propositions or premises, but could be false.
informal reasoning heuristics and dialectical thinking
Informal Reasoning: Heuristics and Dialectical Thinking
  • Heuristic
    • A rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but does not guarantee an optimal solution.
  • Dialectical Reasoning
    • A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.
reflective judgment
Reflective Judgment
  • Skills
    • The ability to question assumptions.
    • Evaluate and integrate evidence.
    • Relate that evidence to a theory or opinion.
    • Consider alternative interpretations.
    • Reach defendable conclusions.
    • Be able to reassess those conclusions in face of new information.
  • Developmental stages include prereflective, quasi-reflective, and reflective.
barriers to reasoning rationally
Barriers to Reasoning Rationally
  • Exaggerating the improbable
  • Avoiding loss
  • Biases due to mental sets
  • The hindsight bias
  • The confirmation bias
  • The need for cognitive consistency
  • Overcoming our cognitive biases
exaggerating the improbable
Exaggerating the Improbable
  • Availability Heuristic
    • The tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances.
  • For example, in the wake of September 11, most people overestimated their odds of dying in a plane crash even though they continued to take higher risks by driving in their cars.
avoiding loss
Avoiding Loss
  • People try to minimize risks and losses when making decisions.
  • Responses to the same choice will differ based on whether outcome is framed as gain or loss.
    • In the example, outcomes are the same in Problems 1 & 2
biases due to mental sets
Biases Due to Mental Sets
  • A tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems.
  • Mental sets make learning and problem solving more efficient.
    • For example, we look for patterns in events.
  • Not helpful when a problem calls for fresh insights or a new approach.
the nine dot problem
The Nine-Dot Problem
  • Connect all 9 dots
  • Use only 4 lines
  • Do not lift your pencil from the page after you begin drawing
the hindsight bias
The Hindsight Bias
  • The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known.
    • Also known as the “I knew it all along” phenomenon.
  • Common in political judgments, medical judgments, military decisions.
the confirmation bias
The Confirmation Bias
  • The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one’s own beliefs.

Test this rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the other side.

Which 2 cards to turn over?

need for cognitive consistency
Need for Cognitive Consistency
  • Cognitive Dissonance:
    • A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or
    • when a person’s belief is inconsistent with his or her behaviour.
conditions which may reduce dissonance
Conditions which may reduce dissonance
  • When you need to justify a choice or decision you freely made.
  • When you need to justify behaviour that conflicts with your view of yourself.
  • When you need to justify the effort put into a decision or choice.
justification of effort
Justification of Effort
  • The tendency of individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard for or suffered to attain.
  • A common form of dissonance reduction.
  • After listening to a boring group discussion, those who went through severe initiation to join, rated it most highly. (Aronson & Mills, 1959)
measuring intelligence the psychometric approach
Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach
  • Defining intelligence
  • The invention of IQ tests
  • Can IQ tests be culture-free?
defining intelligence
Defining Intelligence
  • Intelligence
    • An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment.
  • g factor
    • A general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents.
  • Psychometrics
    • The measurement of mental abilities, traits and processes.
the invention of iq tests
The Invention of IQ tests
  • Binet believed we should measure a child’s mental age.
  • Binet and Simon developed a test which measured memory, vocabulary, and perceptual discrimination.
  • Mental age was divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get a IQ or intelligent quotient score.
  • Now IQ scores are derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests.
the psychometric approach
The Psychometric Approach
  • IQ scores are distributed “normally”
    • Bell-shaped curve
  • Very high and low scores are rare
  • 68% of people have IQ between 85-115
    • 99.7% between 55-145
can iq tests be culture free
Can IQ Tests be Culture Free?
  • Attempts to make IQ tests culture fair and culture free have backfired because different cultures have different problem-solving strategies.
  • Cultural values and experiences affect a person’s:
    • Attitude toward exams,
    • Comfort in the settings required for testing,
    • Motivation
    • Rapport with test provider,
    • Competitiveness, and
    • Ease of independent problem solving.
expectations stereotypes and iq scores
Expectations, Stereotypes and IQ Scores
  • Scores are affected by expectations for performance.
  • These expectations are shaped by cultural stereotypes.
  • Stereotype threat
    • A burden of doubt one feels about his or her performance due to negative stereotypes about his or her group’s abilities.
    • Research has shown effects of stereotype threat on many visible minorities, low-income people, women, and elderly people.
beyond the iq test
Beyond the IQ Test
  • Many argue for the continued use of IQ tests because of their ability to predict school success and identify gifted and non-gifted students.
  • Critics contend that IQ tests are only a limited assessment of intelligence.
dissecting intelligence the cognitive approach
Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach
  • The triarchic theory
  • Domains of intelligence
  • Motivation and intellectual success
sternberg s triarchic theory
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
  • Componential - a.k.a. “Analytic”
    • Comparing, analyzing, and evaluating.
    • This type of processes correlates best with IQ.
  • Experiential - a.k.a. “Creative”
    • Inventing or designing solutions to new problems.
    • Transfer skills to new situations.
  • Contextual - a.k.a. “Practical”
    • Using (i.e., applying) the things you know in everyday contexts.
domains of intelligence
Domains of Intelligence
  • Emotional intelligence
    • The ability to:
      • identify your own and other people’s emotions accurately,
      • express your emotions clearly, and
      • regulate emotions in yourself and others.
    • Appears to be biologically based (Damasio, 1994)
motivation and intellectual success
Motivation and intellectual success
  • Comparing the 100 most successful men with 100 least successful, researchers found that motivation, not IQ made the difference.
  • Motivation to work hard at intellectual tasks differs as a function of culture.
  • North American children are as knowledgeable as Asian children on general skills.
beliefs about intelligence
Beliefs about intelligence
  • Asian parents, teachers, and students are more likely to belief that math ability comes from studying.
  • North Americans more likely to view ability as innate.
  • North American parents had lower academic standards for kids.
  • North American children did not value education as much.
animal minds
Animal Minds
  • Animal intelligence
  • Animals and language
  • Thinking About the Thinking of Animals
animal intelligence
Animal Intelligence
  • Cognitive Ethology
    • The study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals.
  • Studies in cognitive ethology have shown evidence that some animals can
    • Anticipate future events.
    • Use numbers to label quantities.
    • Coordinate activities with other animals.
animals and language
Animals and Language
  • Language is a critical element of human cognition.
  • Many animal species can be taught to communicate in ways that resemble language.
    • Chimpanzees and bonobos converse using American Sign Language and symbol board systems
    • An African grey parrot has been taught to count, classify, and compare objects using English words
  • Whether these behaviours are language depends on how you define “language.”
thinking about animal thinking
Thinking About Animal Thinking
  • Anthropomorphism
    • The tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings.
  • Anthropodenial
    • The tendency to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals.