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Verbal categories. Holger Diessel University of Jena holger.diessel @uni-jena.de http://www.holger-diessel.de/. Valency. Intransitive verbs Transitive verbs Ditransitive verbs. Verbal categories. tense aspect mood. Tense. past. present. future. Absolute tense

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verbal categories

Verbal categories

Holger Diessel

University of Jena

[email protected]

http://www.holger-diessel.de/

valency
Valency
  • Intransitive verbs
  • Transitive verbs
  • Ditransitive verbs
verbal categories1
Verbal categories
  • tense
  • aspect
  • mood
tense
Tense

past

present

future

Absolute tense

Peter is working Present

Peter was working Past

Peter has been working Present Perfect

Peter will be working Future 1

Relative tense

Peter had been working (before he went to bed) Past Perfect

Peter will have finished work (when you come) Future 2

tense1
Tense

He will come. Future ‘will’

He is gonna come. Future ‘gonna’

He is coming. Progressive

They will leave when he comes. Present

He is about to leave. ‘is about to’

tense2
Tense

Latin (IE)

voc-ō ‘I call / I am calling’ PRESENT

voc-ābam ‘I was calling / I used to call’ PAST

voc-ābō ‘I will call’ FUTURE

voc-āvi ‘I called / I have called’ PERFECT

voc-āveram ‘I had called’ PAST PERFECT

voc-āverō ‘I will have called’ FUTURE PERFECT

aspect
Aspect

(1) I have gotten a letter from Sue.

(2) I was working.

perfective

imperfective

lexical aspect
Lexical aspect
  • dynamic – non-dynamic
  • durative - punctual
  • telic – atelic
  • inchoative - resulative
lexical aspect1
Lexical aspect

verbs

[-dynamic] [+dynamic]

[-telic] [+telic]

[-durative] [+durative] [-durative] [+durative]

states semelf. activities achievement accomplish.

lexical aspect2
Lexical aspect

(1) She hated ice cream. (State)

(2) The gate banged. (Semelfactive)

(3) Your cat watched those birds. (Activity)

(4) The cease-fire began at noon yesterday. (Achievement)

(5) Peter painted the door red. (Accomplishment)

slide11
Mood
  • subjunctive
  • imperative
  • hortative
  • interrogative
slide12
Mood

(1) Er kommt zur Party.

(2) Er sagt er komme (käme) zur Party.

(3) Wenn er zur Party käme, …

(1) I insist that we reconsider the Council’s decision.

(2) The employees demand that he resign.

(3) I suggest that you be President.

(4) If she were leaving you would have heard about it.

(5) I wish I were you.

slide13
Mood
  • deontic modality
  • epistemic modality

(1) Peter must go.

(2) That must be right.

slide14
Mood

Imperative:

(1) Give me the key.

(2) Gib mir den Schlüssel.

(3) Geben Sie mir den Schlüssel.

Hortative:

(1) Let’s go to the movies.

slide15
Mood

Interrogative:

Japanese

(1) Kore wa hon desu yo

This TOP book is DECL

This is a book.’

(2) Kore wa hon desu ka

This TOP book is Q

‘Is this a book?’

other verbal categories
Other verbal categories
  • person
  • voice
  • causative
  • negation
  • direction
other verbal categories1
Other verbal categories

Swahili (Niger-Congo) PERSON

(1) a-li-ni-piga

3SG.SUBJ-PST-1SG.OBJ-hit

‘He/she hit me.’

English (IE) PASSIVE

(1) Peter kicked the ball.

(2) The ball was kicked (by Peter).

other verbal categories2
Other verbal categories

Turkish (Turkic) CAUSATIVE

(1) Hasan öl-dü.

Hasan die-PST

‘Hasan died.’

(2) Ali Hasan öl-dür-dü.

Ali Hsan die-CAUSE-PST

‘Ali killed Hasan.’

other verbal categories3
Other verbal categories

Maasai (Nilo-Saharan) NEGATION

(1) m-a-rany

NEG-1S-sing

‘I do not sing.

German (IE) DIRECTION

(1) hin-/her-bringen

hin-/her-stellen

hin-/her-laufen

hin-/her-legen

hin-/her-schwimmen

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