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Trail Bridges – A Common Sense Approach to Selecting Bridge Sites. Presenter: James “Scott” Groenier, P.E. Project Leader, MTDC, WIT Prepared for: NOHVCC Conference Ontario, CA March 17, 2005. Introduction. Site Reconnaissance

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trail bridges a common sense approach to selecting bridge sites

Trail Bridges – A Common Sense Approach to Selecting Bridge Sites

Presenter:

James “Scott” Groenier, P.E.

Project Leader, MTDC, WIT

Prepared for: NOHVCC Conference

Ontario, CA

March 17, 2005

introduction
Introduction
  • Site Reconnaissance
  • Geomorphology Concerns
  • Hydrology and Hydraulics
  • Alignment
  • Environmental Concerns
  • Design Loads
  • Trail Bridge Website
  • Summary
site reconnaissance
Site Reconnaissance
  • Site Investigation - simple
site reconnaissance4
Site Reconnaissance
  • Site Investigation - Complex

Streambed strata

Floodplain widths

Soil types

Logs in stream

Ice Damage

Drift locations

Etc

site reconnaissance5
Site Reconnaissance
  • Site Survey

Center of Stream

Edge of water

Bottom of Bank

Top of Bank

Floodplains

Trail

Utilities

Roads

Drift / Ice damage

Etc

Survey upstream and downstream for 300 ft

Survey approaches on both sides 150 ft

Survey top of banks for 30 ft

site reconnaissance6
Site Reconnaissance
  • Geotechnical Investigation

Bedrock

Loam

geomorphology concerns
Geomorphology Concerns

From Rosgen’s

“Field Guide for

Stream Classification”

geomorphology concerns8
Geomorphology Concerns
  • Stream Stability

Deposition Area – Type C Channel

Bedrock - Type A Channel

Stable Banks – Type B Channel

hydrology and hydraulics
Hydrology and Hydraulics

+

Regression Equations from USGS Reports on Estimating Frequency and Magnitude of Floods

=

Flow (CFS)

  • Waterway Adequacy
    • Hydrology
hydrology and hydraulics11
Hydrology and Hydraulics
  • Waterway Adequacy
    • Hydraulics

1) Take CFS from Hydrology

2) Take Site Investigation info

3) Take Site Survey

And

Use a computer model such as

HEC-RAS (River Analysis System)

Or

WinXSPRO

And you get this…..

HEC-RAS Example

hydrology and hydraulics12
Hydrology and Hydraulics
  • Flooding –Spring, Fall or rain on snow

Good or Bad Location?

hydrology and hydraulics14
Hydrology and Hydraulics
  • Navigational Clearance

5 ft Minimum Required

alignment
Alignment
  • Horizontal

90 degree Bend

Straight

alignment16
Alignment
  • Vertical

Bottom of Sag Curve

Slight Grade

environmental concerns
Environmental Concerns
  • Fisheries
    • Spawning Areas, Fish passage
    • TES - Closures
      • Salmon
      • Bull Trout
      • Cutthroat Trout
      • etc
  • Wildlife
    • Nesting Trees, Rearing areas, etc
    • TES - Closures
      • Indiana Bat
      • Bald Eagles
      • Northern Goshawk
      • etc
environmental concerns18
Environmental Concerns
  • Ice Flow
  • Floating Debris
  • Falling Trees
  • Falling Rocks
  • Excessive Snow Loads
  • Avalanche Chutes
  • Springs/Seeps
  • Wetlands
  • Others
design loads
Design Loads
  • Dead Loads
    • Superstructure
    • Decking
    • Railing
    • Wearing Surface
    • Miscellaneous
      • Utility Lines
      • Covers
design loads20
Design Loads
  • Live Load
    • Pedestrian – 85 psf
    • Equestrian
    • OHV’s
    • Snowmobiles
    • Mountain Bikes
    • Vehicles
      • 5,000 width <6 ft
      • 10,000 6 ft<width<10 ft
design loads21
Design Loads
  • Snow Loads – 0 psf to over 350 psf
    • SNOTEL sites – 550 to 600 in the West
    • Local Building Officials
    • http://fsweb.mtdc.wo.fs.fed.us/snow_load/
  • Wind Loads
  • Overloads
    • Groomers
      • 7600# - 18,000#
bridge types
Bridge Types
  • Trail Bridge Catalog
    • Forest Service Intranet - http://fsweb.mtdc.wo.fs.fed.us/bridges/
    • Forest Service Internet - http://www.fs.fed.us/na/wit/WITPages/bridgecatalog/
bridge fabrication supply
Bridge Fabrication/Supply
  • Structure produced by a certified Manufacturer for the type of material being used.

- See “Contact Information For Wood and Steel Pedestrian and Trail Bridges” at National Wood In Transportation Website

summary
Summary
  • Site Reconnaissance
  • Geomorphology Concerns
  • Hydrology and Hydraulics
  • Alignment
  • Environmental Concerns
  • Design Loads
  • Trail Bridge Website
  • Questions?