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Trait Approach. Introduction Common Characteristics Gordon Allport Henry Murray Raymond Cattell The Big Five Model The Interpersonal Circumplex Modern Applications of the Trait Approach Criticisms & Limitations Strengths. I. Introduction. II. Common Characteristics.

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Trait Approach


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Trait Approach • Introduction • Common Characteristics • Gordon Allport • Henry Murray • Raymond Cattell • The Big Five Model • The Interpersonal Circumplex • Modern Applications of the Trait Approach • Criticisms & Limitations • Strengths

    2. I. Introduction

    3. II. Common Characteristics • Focus on average behavior • Less concerned with underlying mechanisms • Less to say about personality change

    4. III. Gordon Allport • Nomothetic versus ideographic approaches to personality • Central traits • Secondary traits • Cardinal traits • The proprium

    5. IV. Henry Murray • Personology • Psychogenic needs • Some examples: • Achievement • Affiliation • Dominance • Nurturance • Play

    6. V. Raymond Cattell • Factor analysis • The 16 Personality Factor Inventory

    7. VI. The Big Five Approach

    8. VII. The Interpersonal Circumplex

    9. Sample Scatter Plot

    10. Correlation Matrix

    11. Interpersonal Dimensions Forceful Assertive Dominant Hostile Friendly Cold Cruel Kind Agreeable Submissive Meek Timid

    12. Laws of Complementarity • Dominance pulls submission • Submission pulls dominance • Friendliness pulls friendliness • Hostility pulls hostility

    13. Interpersonal Circumplex Types • Hostile-Submissive Types: • Rebellious Distrustful Personality • Self-effacing Masochistic Personality • Friendly-Submissive Types • Docile Dependent Personality • Cooperative Overconventional Personality

    14. Interpersonal Circumplex Types • Friendly-Dominant Types: • Responsible Hypernormal Personality • Managerial Autocratic Personality • Hostile-Dominant Types • Competitive Narcissistic Personality • Aggressive Sadistic Personality

    15. VIII. Modern Applications of the Trait Approach • Type A Behavior • The MMPI

    16. MMPI • Example of an “empirically derived” test • Questions “earn” their way onto the final test by statistically differentiating different groups of people (people with and without depression, people with and without schizophrenia, people with and without alcohol problems, etc…)

    17. Simulated MMPI Items

    18. Simulated MMPI Items

    19. MMPI Clinical Scales

    20. MMPI Clinical Scales

    21. IX. Criticisms & Limitations

    22. X. Strengths

    23. The Biological Perspective • Introduction • Genetic Factors in Personality • Eysenck’s Theory of Personality • Temperament • Cerebral Activation Patterns • Evolutionary Personality Theory

    24. I. Introduction

    25. II. Genetic Factors in Personality

    26. (Tellegen et al., 1988)

    27. III. Eysenck’s Theory of Personality

    28. Eysenck’sSupertraits or Types • Extraversion • Neuroticism • Psychoticism

    29. Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model Extraversion Activity Liveliness Sociability Impulsiveness Excitability HR1 HR2 HR3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. SR1 SR2 SR3 SR4

    30. Eysenck’s Two-Factor Model

    31. Extraversion & Mood Positive Mood Score

    32. IV. Temperament

    33. Buss & Plomin’s Temperament Factors • Activity • Vigor, tempo • Emotionality • Fear, anger, distress • Sociability • Attention of others, share activities, interaction • (Impulsivity)

    34. Temperament and Genetics Degree of Correlation

    35. V. Cerebral Activation Patterns

    36. VI. Evolutionary Personality Theory

    37. What if Charles Darwin had been a psychologist? “So, tell me about your mother…”

    38. The Humanistic Approach • Introduction • The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers • Modern Humanistic Concepts

    39. I. Introduction

    40. Roots of the Humanistic Movement • Existential philosophy • The ideas of Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow