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The Height of Greek Civilization. Chapter 5 World History. Chapter Themes. Innovation: The ancient Greeks developed a culture that becomes one of the foundations of Western civilization The Parthenon. Chapter Themes.

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The Height of Greek Civilization


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    1. The Height of Greek Civilization Chapter 5 World History John 3:16

    2. Chapter Themes • Innovation: The ancient Greeks developed a culture that becomes one of the foundations of Western civilization • The Parthenon John 3:16

    3. Chapter Themes • Innovation: Ancient Greek thinkers believe in reason and the importance of the individual • Socrates John 3:16

    4. Chapter Themes • Cultural Diffusion: Alexander’s empire brings about a mix of Greek and Middle Eastern cultures • Alexander the Great John 3:16

    5. This section discusses the Mid-400s B.C., Greek’s Golden Age. Artists excelled in architecture, sculpture, and painting. These beautiful yet simplistic works are termed “classical”. Writers and thinkers also made enduring achievements in literature and drama. Quest for beauty and meaning John 3:16

    6. Terms to Define • Classical • Sanctuary • Perspective • Amphora • Tragedy • Comedy John 3:16

    7. People to Meet • Myron • Phidias • Praxiteles • Aeschylus • Sophocles • Euripides • Aristophanes • m John 3:16

    8. Places to Locate • Olympia John 3:16

    9. Building for the Gods • The Greeks were “lovers of the beautiful” • City-states tried to turn acropolis into architectural treasure John 3:16

    10. Building for the Gods • The Parthenon—the temple to the goddess Athena--built on the summit of the Acropolis in Athens—best exemplifies classical Greek architecture John 3:16

    11. Building for the Gods • Parthenon of Athens built under the rule of Pericles • Started 447 B.C. and finished 432 B.C. • Classical is characterized by beautiful simplicity and graceful balance. • Iron in its marble makes it gleam in the sun John 3:16

    12. Building for the Gods • The Parthenon’s graceful proportions perfectly balance width, length, and height, exemplifying the Greek ideal of the “golden mean” • This was part of the “Golden Age” of Greece John 3:16

    13. Building for the Gods • Greeks worshipped in their homes or out doors. So their temples were built for the homes of their gods. John 3:16

    14. Building for the Gods • Parthenon represented the “Golden Mean” • “nothing to excess” • “…midpoint between two extremes” John 3:16

    15. Building for the Gods • Greeks understood perspective • Columns thicker in middle…appear straight from all angles • Steps lower in center--appears straight • Creating perception of perfection John 3:16

    16. Classical Greek Art • Copied by the Romans • Set lasting standards • Other achievements in literature, art, drama, etc., many considered classics today. • Many Europe’s traditions/cultural standards began with “Golden Age” John 3:16

    17. Greek Arts • Greeks emphasized the individual—thus excelled at portraying the human form • In both painting and sculpture, the Greeks excelled at portraying the human form. • Poseidon John 3:16

    18. Greek Art • They did paint murals but non survived. Their works are captured on vases • Large vases were called amphora and normally uses for wine or oils • Painting on vases were everyday scenes John 3:16

    19. Greek Arts • Greek sculpture, like Greek architecture, reached its height in Athens during the time of Pericles • The great sculpture Phidias was in charge of the Parthenon’s sculptures and carved the towering statue of Athena that was placed inside. John 3:16

    20. Greek Arts • Praxiteles work reflected the changes incurred from the Peloponnesian War • Sculptures were life-size, graceful, not powerful • Ordinary people and deities and heroes. John 3:16

    21. Impact of War on Art • Praxiteles carved ordinary people into life-sized statues • Loss of self confidence • Emphasis of grace over power • Before the Peloponnesian War, artists carved only deities and heroes. After, they carved ordinary people John 3:16

    22. Drama and Theater • The Greeks were the first people to write and perform plays, presented twice a year to honor Dionysus. • The earliest Greek plays were tragedies, in which the lead character struggles against fate only to be doomed to an unhappy ending John 3:16

    23. Aeschylus • First of great writers of tragedies • Aeschylus’s (EHS*kuh*luhs) “Oresteia” trilogy show how the consequences of one’s deeds are carried down generation to generation • Its moral is that the law of the community, not personal revenge, should decide punishment John 3:16

    24. Sophocles • Sophocles, the next generation, accepted human suffering as unavoidable but stressed human courage and compassion • His “Oedipus Rex” depicts the plight of Oedipus, a king doomed to kill his father and marry his mother. John 3:16

    25. Sophocles • Despite Oedipus’ efforts to avoid his fate, the deities’ decree comes true • When he discovers what he has done, he blinds himself and goes into exile John 3:16

    26. Euripides • Euripides, the last great Greek tragedian, focused on the human characteristics that bring disaster to them Euripides hated war and many of his plays show the tragedy that war brings John 3:16

    27. A Comedy Tonight • Eventually the Greeks also wrote comedies, plays with humorous themes and happy ending • Aristophanes (ar*uh*STAH*fuh*NEEZ), the most famous writer of comedies, created imaginative social satire John 3:16

    28. A Comedy Tonight • Aristophanes’ works included witty comments about leading figures and issues of the day • Theater at Delphi John 3:16

    29. The Olympic Games • Greeks believed healthy bodies made best use of nature’s gifts • Hercules by Phidias John 3:16

    30. The Olympic Games • Greeks stressed athletics in school curriculum • Men spend leisure time in polis gymnasium John 3:16

    31. The Olympics • Olympic Games were held in Olympia every 4 years • Olympics were religious festival in honor of Zeus • Trading and fighting stopped John 3:16

    32. The Olympic Games • Athletes came from all over Greek-speaking world • Women not permitted, even as spectators • Women’s games in honor of Hera held in different location John 3:16

    33. The Olympic Games • Consistent with Greek emphasis on the individual, there were individual rather than team events • Foot races at first • Later, broad jump, discuss, jumping, boxing, javelin, etc. John 3:16

    34. The Olympic Games • Winners were crowned with wreaths of olive leaves • Parades held in honor of winners • Sometimes, taxes were dismissed John 3:16

    35. Greeks believed the mind could understand everything. Philosophers, or thinkers, produced remarkable ideas. Philosophy means, “the seeking of wisdom”. A foundation was laid for new disciplines like history, political science, biology, and logic—the science of reasoning The Greek mind John 3:16

    36. Terms to Define • Philosopher • Logic • Hygiene John 3:16

    37. People to Meet • Sophists • Socrates • Plato • Aristotle • Herodotus • Thucydides • Thales • Pythagoras • Hippocrates John 3:16

    38. The Sophists • In 400s B.C., education provided by sophists • Sophists: “knowers” • Traveled polis to polis • Claimed they could find answers to all questions John 3:16

    39. The Sophists • Rejected gods/goddesses influenced behavior • No absolute moral/legal standards • Man is measure of all things • Truth different for each person John 3:16

    40. The Sophists • Took money for teaching • Interested in teaching argumentation to get ahead • Socrates and Plato criticized them John 3:16

    41. Socrates • Born 479 B.C., Athenian • Sculptor by trade • Spent time teaching • Believed in absolute truth • Attracted to process of learning—teaching thinking for oneself John 3:16

    42. Socrates • Teaching method became known as “Socratic Method” • Ask questions of students and then oppose their answers with logic • Forced students to defend their answers John 3:16

    43. Socrates • Prominent Athenians accused him of corrupting youth • …not worshipping the gods…” • Socrates argued the search for intellectual truth was the most important thing John 3:16

    44. Socrates • Don’t calculate living or dying, only “…doing right or wrong” • Jury of citizens found him guilty and sentenced him to death John 3:16

    45. Socrates • Had the right to ask for a lesser sentence, e.g., exile, but chose to follow the law to the letter • Drank poisonous hemlock and died quietly among friends John 3:16

    46. Plato • Born Athenian aristocrat • After Socrates death • At age 30, opened his Academy and taught • Existed until A.D. 529 • Student of Socrates John 3:16

    47. Plato • From memory, remembered dialogues between Socrates and students • Wrote first political science book • The Republic • Ideal society and government John 3:16

    48. Plato • Plato disliked Athenian democracy • Preferred Spartan government • Service to community above self • Too much freedom breeds disorder • Distrusted lower classes • Only best educated and most intelligent should participate in government John 3:16

    49. Plato • Plato believed in searching for “truth” • Rejected the senses: hearing, feeling, seeing, etc. • Believed many things thought to be senses were only appearance • Real world was ideas or ideal “forms” • Could only be understood through logical thought or reasoning John 3:16

    50. Aristotle • Studied with Plato at the Academy for 20 years • Tutored Alexander the Great • Opened Athenian school called Lyceum John 3:16