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Greek Civilization. mid 400’s BCE was the pinnacle (height) Age of Pericles Golden Mean - nothing in excess. Architecture. temples 3 styles Doric-plain Ionic – curved Corinthian- fancy. Buildings. Parthenon (Doric) Erechtheum (Ionic) Zeus (Corinthian). Arts. pottery red on black

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greek civilization
Greek Civilization
  • mid 400’s BCE was the pinnacle (height)
  • Age of Pericles
  • Golden Mean - nothing in excess
architecture
Architecture
  • temples
  • 3 styles
    • Doric-plain
    • Ionic – curved
    • Corinthian- fancy
buildings
Buildings
  • Parthenon (Doric)
  • Erechtheum(Ionic)
  • Zeus (Corinthian)
slide4
Arts
  • pottery
    • red on black
    • black on red
    • decorated with human figures
sculpture
sculpture
  • idealized human figure
  • but carved to look like humans
  • realism
  • Myron - discus thrower
  • Phidias - parthenon
  • Praxiteles - everyday
drama
Drama
  • tragic morality tales
  • chorus
  • all male actors
playwrights
Playwrights
  • Aeschylus 90 plays
    • Oresteia a trilogy story
    • Agamemnon, Oestrias, Furies
    • story of family
  • Sophocles- fate
    • Oedipus trilogy
      • Oedipus Rex
      • Oedipus at Colon
      • Antigone
playwrights ii
Playwrights II
  • Euripides
    • showed how many created his own tragedy
    • The Trojan Women most famous
  • Comedy by Aristophanes
    • political and social satire
    • The clouds
poetry
Poetry
  • Sappho – female poet
    • Wrote of wonders of women
    • Instructed women in music and literature
    • Priestess was only public position open to women
    • Criticized
the olympic games
The Olympic Games
  • believed healthy bodies made healthy minds
  • men practiced sports part of the day
    • every four years
    • religious festival
    • all trade and fighting stopped
    • only men
    • individual events
      • footrace
      • broad jump,discus throw,boxing,wrestling
      • pentathlon-run,jump, throw discus,wrestle, hurl javelin
philosophers
Philosophers
  • The Sophists
    • profession teachers
    • moved between the various cities
    • Athens freedom of speech drew many
    • rejected idea of god influencing human behavior
    • felt man responsible for his own actions and conditions
    • criticized for being mercenary
socrates
Socrates
  • born in Athens 470BCE
  • sculptor by trade
  • believed in absolute truth
  • used “Socratic method” taught by asking questions
  • required students to look inward for answers
  • criticized for corrupting youth found guilty and sentenced to death
  • drank hemlock poison and died according to law
plato
Plato
  • aristocrat by birth
  • opened Academy on death of Socrates
  • recorded dialogs between Socrates and students
  • The Republic
    • presented a plan for ideal society and government
    • liked Sparta over Athens
    • rejected the senses as a source of truth
    • reality could only be understood through logical thought
aristotle
Aristotle
  • studied with Plato for 20 years
  • tutored young Alexander of Macedonia
  • opened school in Athens called the Lyceum
  • worked in logic
  • scientific method
  • argued that all forms of government were workable
history
History
  • Herodotus - father of history
    • wrote about Persian wars
    • described Greek Colonies and
  • Thucydides
    • Pelopenisan war
    • rejected gods intervention
    • only humans make history
    • tried to be accurate and reliable
scientists
Scientists
  • Thales
    • mid 600’s BCE
    • trained in Egypt and Babylon
    • computed date of eclipse
    • formulated a theory that water was the basis of all things
  • Pythogoras
    • 500 BCE
    • tried to explain everything in mathematical terms
    • taught the world was round and revolved around a fixed point
medicine
Medicine
  • Hippocrates
    • Medicine
    • diseases had natural not supernatural cause
    • advocated proper hygiene
alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • Macedonian
    • descendants of Dorian invaders
    • militaristic
    • Philip II trained in Thebes
      • Philip began conquest of Greece
      • 336 announced Greeks and Macedonia would go to war against Persia
      • assassinated before he began
alexander age 20 takes control
Alexander age 20 takes control
  • educated by Aristotle
  • commander of field troops at age 16
  • loved for his courage and skill
  • 334 BCE invades Persian territories
empire
Empire
  • Coast of Turkey freeing Greek cities and colonies
  • forced Persian king Darius III to flee back to Persia
  • moved south and took Mediterranean coast all the way to Egypt
    • founded first Alexandria
    • declared Pharaoh
  • 331 began movement into Persia itself
    • took Babylon, Persepolis and Susa
    • marched all the way to Indus River in modern Pakistan
  • established cities and left troops all the way along
empire ii
Empire II
  • 327BCE Macedonian troops refused to go farther
  • returned to Persepolis by way of coast
  • got sick and died at age 33
  • holding were divided among his 3 strongest generals
hellenistic culture
Hellenistic culture
  • mix of Greek and Persian
  • built new cities
    • used grid line approach to development
    • stucco stone buildings
  • Alexandria
    • jewel
    • double harbor with light house
    • museum and library greatest in the world
women in the hellenistic world
Women in the Hellenistic world
  • upper class women could move out freely
  • learned to read and write
  • allowed occupations
  • no rights for commoners
philosophers1
Philosophers
  • Cynicism
    • Diogenes
      • give up material objects
      • live simply
  • Epicureans
    • avoid joy and pain
    • live simply with a few close friends
  • Stoicism
    • Zeno-everything is governed by natural law
    • ignore importune and follow reason
art and literature
Art and Literature
  • showed people with emotion
  • art became a business
  • Meander famous writer of comedies
science medicine mathematics
Science, Medicine, mathematics
  • Aristarchus
    • earth revolves around the sun
    • sun is larger then earth
  • Eratostenes
    • estimated earth's circumference
  • Doctors
    • discovered nervous system,
    • found drugs to help with pain
  • Euclid and Archimedes
    • geometry and physics
slide28

Bowman, J. (1980). Clash of East and West: Imperial Greece. New York: HBJ Press.

  • Bowra. C. M. (1968) Classical Greece. New York: Time-Life Books.
  • Pomeroy, S.B. (1995). Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves:Women in Classical Antiguity. New York: Schocken Books.