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The Glory of Greek Civilization. Classical Greece 2000B.C. – 200 B.C. Three Aegean Civilizations. What direction is the Aegean Sea from Greece? 2000-1100 B.C. Three major civilizations prospered in the area around the Aegean Sea Minoans on the island of Crete The Hellenes on the mainland

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the glory of greek civilization

The Glory of Greek Civilization

Classical Greece

2000B.C. – 200 B.C.

three aegean civilizations
Three Aegean Civilizations
  • What direction is the Aegean Sea from Greece?
  • 2000-1100 B.C. Three major civilizations prospered in the area around the Aegean Sea
    • Minoans on the island of Crete
    • The Hellenes on the mainland
    • The Trojans on Troy
      • On the coast of Asia Minor
  • 1700 B.C. – 1400 B.C.
  • Located on the Island of Crete which is in what direction from Greece?
  • The term Minoan comes from the name Minos, a legendary king of Crete.
  • Crete had poor soil and good harbors
    • Much of their wealth came from trade
  • Ships carried goods throughout the lands
    • Gold, Silver, jewelry, swords, and ivory carvings
  • No large army – instead built a powerful navy to keep sea free from pirates
minoan culture
Minoan culture
  • Made clay vases, bronze daggers, gold cups, and other luxury items
  • Minoans had indoor plumbing with drains
  • Were skilled at Boxing and Bull Jumping
  • Most impressive city = Knossos (on the island of Crete)
the fall of the minoans
The fall of the Minoans
  • Decline of this civilization has no known cause
    • Some believe that Hellenes invaded Crete sometime between 1450 and 1350 B.C.
  • It is known however that the Hellenes on mainland Greece had opened direct trading with Egypt and Syria and that such trade would not have been possible if the Minoan navy had still controlled the seas
the trojan wars
The Trojan Wars
  • After the fall of Crete, the Hellenes turned their power in other places
  • They expanded their trade into the black Sea Region
  • As time passed, these people came into conflict with the people who lived in the city-state of Troy
  • Between 1200-1180 B.C. two Trojan wars were fought
what is the trojan war
What is the Trojan War?
  • A Greek poet named Homer created a long poem about the wars
    • ILLIAD
    • Thought to be based on oral or spoken poetry
the illiad
The illiad
  • The Trojan Wars started after Paris, a son of the King of Troy, kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek King. An army of greek heroes, including Achilles and Odysseus, sailed to Troy to rescue Helen. The great battle between Achilles and Hector, prince of Troy, in which Hector is killed, is a high point of the poem. The Greeks finally defeated the Trojans and destroyed Troy
  • Based on Heinrich Schliemann, Troy as described by Homer, really did exist
the fall of the aegean peoples
The fall of the Aegean Peoples
  • Dorians
  • Came in after the fall of Troy when all other Greek city-states were fighting each other
  • They didn’t write anything down so the Greeks fell into what is known as the Dark Ages
highest point of development
Highest point of development
  • Began around 500 B.C.
  • Because of the geography, the Greeks DID NOT create one Nation – instead they created many city-states also called POLI
    • Independent of one another
  • Each was governed as it’s citizens viewed best
    • Monarchy – ruled by a king
    • Aristocracy – ruled by nobles
    • Oligarchy – ruled by wealthy merchants and landowners
  • Athens chose Democracy
    • Ruled by the people
athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
  • Athens was different from all others – they had democracy
males vs females
Males vs females
  • Males began preparing for their role in the democratic government at 18
    • Public pledge to defend Athens and Gods
    • After training for 2 years – enter into active military
  • Only after they served in military could they then vote
  • After 30 he could serve on the Council of 500
    • This supervised the army, the navy, and financial affairs
  • Could also serve on jury (6000 people)
  • Could also be elected to serve as one of the Ten Generals
    • They led the armed forces of Athens

Not all people could practice in the democracy

    • Woman
    • Slaves or prisoners of war
    • Residents who were not born in Athens
  • Athens is therefore ruled by a MINORITY not a MAJORITY
education in athens
Education in Athens
  • Boys were educated to serve the city
    • Grammar
    • Singing and musical instrument
    • Geometry, astronomy, geography, and public speaking
  • Also trained the body
    • Participated in sports
      • Wrestling, swimming, running, and throwing the javelin and discus
  • Girls
    • Taught to be good wives and mothers
    • Weaving, household management, and the care of children
    • Married between age 14 and 16
  • What is culture?
  • What does it mean to have culture or to be cultured?
  • Arts and Sciences
  • Talented people came to Athens to learn – what does this tell us about the culture of Athens?
  • Artists, architects, sculptors, dramatists, philosophers, mathematicians,
great minds of athens
Great minds of Athens
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Wrote plays called Tragedies
    • Aeschylus
    • Sophocles
    • Euripedes
  • Wrote comedies
    • Aristophanes
  • Herodotus
    • Wars between Greeks and Persians
  • Thucydides
    • Peloponnesian War


The Military State

second most important city state
Second most important City-State
  • Cared little about democracy or the arts
  • Most of their interests were around military matters
  • Government became organized around 600 B.C.
  • Strongest military power in all of Greece
  • Ignored all other city-states
  • Elected two kings every 9 years
  • A council of elders and an assembly of free Spartans advised the king
    • Council of elders = 28 men over the age of 60
    • Assembly of free Spartans = men over age 30
  • Ephors held real power
    • This was a committee of 5 people elected every year by the assembly
    • Closely watch the actions of the king
    • Control education
    • Supervise slaves
  • Spartan people only lived to served the needs of the government
ways of life
Ways of Life
  • All males are professional soldiers
    • Spent childhood training for the military
    • Most of adult life in the army
  • All boys, starting at age 7 moved away from home to a military training camp
    • Here they were taught how to be good Spartans
  • Men required to marry at the age of 30 in order to start having a family
    • This gave the government more soldiers!
  • Men stayed in the military and did not live at home with their wives until after they were 60 years old
spartan women
Spartan Women
  • Received no formal education
  • Taught to be healthy mothers
  • Had more legal rights then other woman in other city states
  • Had legal rights equal to men
spartan citizens
Spartan citizens
  • Not allowed to participate in trade or manufacturing
    • People who were not citizens did this for the Spartans
  • Spartans owned farms
    • Helots = non Spartan slaves
    • Helots do all of the work on the farms
  • Mainly agriculture with very little trade
  • Very, very harsh life