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VSEPR: Lone Pairs. H. H. H. N. H. H. C. H. H. C. H. H. N. H. H. H. H. H. Lone pairs. Thus far we have considered (built) only structures where there are no free electrons around the central atom. Vs. or. or.

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lone pairs

H

H

H

N

H

H

C

H

H

C

H

H

N

H

H

H

H

H

Lone pairs
  • Thus far we have considered (built) only structures where there are no free electrons around the central atom

Vs.

or

or

  • These electrons that are not involved in bonds are called “lone pairs”
  • Essentially, they have the same influence on molecular structure as electron pairs in bonds
  • The result is some weird shapes and names…
variations on tetrahedral molecule
Variations on Tetrahedral Molecule
  • The tetrahedral molecule is AX4
  • Lone pairs can be indicated with AXYEZ, where Z is the number of lone pairs
  • By replacing 1 bond with a lone pair the tetrahedral shape becomes “trigonal pyramidal”
  • AX3E
  • By replacing two bonds with lone pairs we get a “bent” (non-linear) shape (AX2E2 ) (Fig. 7.7, pg. 249)
variations on trigonal bipyramidal
Variations on Trigonal Bipyramidal
  • AX5 is trigonal bipyramidal
  • AX4E is unsymmetrical tetrahedron
  • AX2E3 is linear

See Fig. 7.8 on pg. 251

  • AX3E2 is T-shaped
variations on octahedral shape
Variations on Octahedral Shape
  • AX6 is octahedral
  • AX5E is square pyramidal
  • AX4E2 is square planar

See Fig. 7.9 on pg. 252

For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com