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General Embryology
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  1. General Embryology Lecture I Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy

  2. Our life begins as one cell formed by the union of the maternal and paternal germ cells Haploid (23) Haploid (23) Diploid (46/23 pairs) Diploid (46/23 pairs) Diploid

  3. Homologous pair Human chromosomes

  4. Mitosis

  5. Meiosis

  6. Female Ovary (primodial germ cells) Oogenesis Ovum/oocyte Male Testis (spermatogonia) Spermiogenesis Spermatogenesis Sperm Spermatid Gametogenesis

  7. Ovarian cycle Uterine cycle Hormonal cycle Development of the fetus Development of the placenta

  8. Ovarian cycle

  9. Fertilization

  10. Zygote

  11. LH FSH 0 14 28 hCG Fetus FSH & LH Oestrogen Progesteron Uterus

  12. /POA Dating of pregnancy & the age of fetus

  13. General Embryology Lecture II Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy

  14. Early development of embryo

  15. Cleavage

  16. Blastocyst Day 05 After 1 wk

  17. Amniotic cavity Blastocyst cavity Inner cell mass (embryoblast) embryonic plate Outer cell mass (trophoblast)

  18. Bilaminar disc (2 weeks) Amniotic cavity Epiblast Hypoblast Syncytiotrophoblast Blastocyst cavity Cytotrophoblast

  19. embryonic pole exocoelomic cavity (primitive yolk sac) abembryonic pole exocoelomic membrane

  20. Bilaminar disc….cont. /Epiblast /Hypoblast

  21. Extra-embryonic mesoderm

  22. Amniotic cavity Connecting stalk Secondary yolk sac Extra-embryonic coelom (chorionic cavity)

  23. Gastrulation

  24. Trilaminar disc (3 weeks) Ectoderm Intra-embryonic mesoderm Endoderm

  25. Notochord

  26. Neural tube & neural crest cells Neural crest cells Neural tube Starts in the 3rd week This is the earliest system to start developing Neural crest Neural fold Notochord

  27. Folding of the embryo

  28. Paraxial mesoderm Intermediate mesoderm Ventral mesentary

  29. Derivatives of germ layers Ectoderm CNS including neural crest cells Peripheral nervous system Sensory epithelium of ear, eye and nose Skin (epidermis) and its appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous glands and sweat glands) Secretory component and ducts of mammary gland Pituitary gland Secretory acini and ducts of parotid salivary gland Enamal of teeth Lens of the eye

  30. Endoderm Lining epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract Secretory acini and ducts of submandibular and sublingual salivary glands Alveolar parenchyma and the lining epithelium of the respiratory tract Liver parenchyma Epithelium of the gall bladder Exocrine pancreas Epithelium of the urinary bladder and urethra Parenchyma of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Epithelial lining of the tympanic cavity and auditory tube Epithelium of the palatine tonsil Hassel’s corpuscles of thymus

  31. Mesoderm Paraxial mesoderm Sclerotome Myotome Dermatome  Intermediate mesoderm Lateral plate mesoderm Somatic mesoderm Splanchnic mesoderm Branchial mesoderm

  32. Somites

  33. Limb bud

  34. Twins identical

  35. Totipotent Pluripotent Unipotent