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Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations

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  1. Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations National Council of University Research Administrators Region IV Workshop 2008

  2. Sarah E. Starr Director, Office of Funding and Research Development The Ohio State University Research Foundation Jeffrey RitchieGrants Management AnalystAurora Health Care Faculty

  3. Ice Breaker Creating and Structuring a Presentation Interactive Activity Effective Public Speaking Instruction Break How to Train the Trainers Instruction Developing Confidence and Handling Nervousness Questions and Discussion Workshop Agenda

  4. Creating and Structuring a Professional Presentation

  5. Introductory Activity

  6. Creating the Presentation Features of any Presentation: • Specific Purpose • Structure • Supporting Materials

  7. Creating Specific Purpose Key Questions to Ask: • Who is my Audience? • What do they bring to the Presentation? • What should they bring from the Presentation?

  8. Structuring Your Presentation Every presentation has the following: • Introduction • Main Points • Conclusion

  9. Creating an Introduction The Introduction consists of three objectives: • Get the attention and interest of the audience • Reveal the topic of the presentation • Establish the credibility of the speaker

  10. State the importance of the topic Question the audience Begin with a quotation Tell a story Get Their Attention

  11. Reveal The Topic • Listeners need help in sorting out a speaker’s ideas • Helps the audience know what to listen for • Allows you to define complicated terms clearly

  12. Establish Your Credibility The 60-Second Job Interview • Tell about yourself • Explain your relevant experience • Convey your interest in the topic

  13. Creating Main Points • Presentations typically have 2-3 Main Points • If more than that, your audience may be confused • Not all Main Points are created equal! • “Cluster” similar or related sub-points

  14. Creating Main Points • Keep Main Points separate • Use the same pattern of wording • Balance time devoted to each point • Time spent on each Main Point depends on the amount of supporting materials

  15. Structuring Main Points • Order is extremely important for both clarity and persuasiveness • There are different kinds of order: • Chronological: time pattern • Spatial: directional pattern • Causal: cause-effect relationship • Topical: divided into subtopics

  16. The Conclusion • Closing remarks reinforce the Main Points • The conclusion always has two major functions: • Lets the audience know the presentation is ending • Reinforces the understanding of the central idea • Do not be abrupt

  17. Reinforce the Central Idea • Summarize by restating the Main Points • End with a quotation • Make a dramatic statement • Refer back to the introduction

  18. Methods to Signal the End • Simple statements • “In conclusion . . .” or “Before we wrap up…” • Ask for questions • “Is there anything that I haven’t covered?” • Thank your audience • “You’ve been great” • Leave • Don’t have multiple conclusions!

  19. Creating Supporting Materials • Alone, main points are only assertions • Supporting materials give meaning • Supporting materials relate to critical thinking • Research to find supporting materials

  20. “Most people are more deeply influenced by one clear, vivid, personal example than by an abundance of statistical data.” Eliot Aronson, Social Psychologist

  21. Creating Examples • Illustrate a point • Use brief examples or specific instances • Pull listeners into the presentation • Tell a story vividly and dramatically • Explain hypothetical examples • Create a “real world” situation

  22. Using Statistics • Quantify subjective material • Give ideas numerical precision • Add credibility to the presentation • Identify sources of statistical data

  23. Misusing Statistics • Use statistics sparingly • Too many bore and confuse • Explain statistics • Interpret data for the listeners

  24. Visual Examples • Round off complicated statistics • Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends

  25. Activity Time!

  26. Creating an Electronic Presentation

  27. Electronic Presentations Benefits of Electronic Presentations • Simple • Portable • Impressive • Creative

  28. Preparing Electronic Presentations Fonts and Text • Use textual cues consistently • (Keep font changes to a MIMIMUM) • Use bullets and other non-text as cues • Don’t let the technology be distracting

  29. Preparing Electronic Presentations Backgrounds and Graphics • Backgrounds should be consistent • Graphics should be small, unobtrusive • Both should enhance the presentation

  30. Preparing Electronic Presentations Using Special Effects • Transitions • Sound/Visual Effects • Video

  31. Preparing Electronic Presentations Things Gone Wrong! • Bad Color Schemes (Can you read me now?) • Indecipherable Graphs & Charts • Reading vs. Speaking

  32. Delivering Electronic Presentations Before Your Presentation: • Read and Spell Check (twice) • Run through it in front of a practice audience • The presentation doesn’t deliver itself! • Have back-up options. Why!?

  33. Delivering Electronic Presentations Things gone horribly wrong… • Power Failure • Equipment Failure • I thought you brought the hand-outs!

  34. Fundamentals of Public Speaking

  35. Goals of the Presentation Reasons for public speaking: • Information • Persuasion • Training

  36. The Informative Presentation Judged by three general criteria: • Is the information communicated accurately? • Is the information communicated clearly? • Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?

  37. Subjects of Informative Presentations • About objects • Tangible, visible, and stable • About processes • How to • About events • Occurrence or happening • About concepts • Beliefs, theories, ideas, principles, etc.

  38. Guidelines for Informative Presentations • Do not overestimate what the audience knows • Relate the subject directly to the audience • Do not be too technical • Avoid abstractions

  39. The Persuasive Presentation Goals of the persuasive presentation • Defending an idea • Selling a program • Refuting an opponent • Inspiring people

  40. Subjects of Persuasive Presentations • Questions of fact • Persuading the audience to accept a view of the facts • Questions of value • Justifying the speaker’s opinion on value judgments • Questions of policy • Persuading people to a specific course of action

  41. The Target Audience • A speaker will seldom be able to persuade all members of the audience • The message must be tailored to the audience • A speaker must decide which portion of the audience that is most desirable to reach • Persuasion is complex

  42. Methods of Persuasion How are audiences persuaded? • They perceived the speaker as being credible • They are won over by the speaker’s evidence • They are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning • Their emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language

  43. “Talk is cheap.”

  44. Public Speaking and Conversation • The average adult spends 30% of waking time in conversation • Conversation and public speaking both require clear communication • You spend much of your life practicing the art of conversation • Conversation and public speaking require similar skills

  45. Skills Gained by Conversation • Logical organization of thoughts • Tailoring the message to the audience • Telling a story for maximum impact • Adapting to listener feedback

  46. Differences from Conversation • Public speaking is more highly structured • Public speaking requires more formal language • Public speaking requires different methods of delivery

  47. Critical Thinking and Public Speaking Public speaking requires • Sound logic • Organized ideas • Effective thinking • Clear expression • Accurate language

  48. Speaker Message Channel Listener Feedback Interference Situation The Process of Public Speaking

  49. Knowledge of subject Preparation of material Personal credibility Sensitivity to audience Manner of speaking Enthusiasm for speaking The Speaker

  50. The Message • The Message belongs to the Presenter • The goal is to deliver the intended Message • Messages must be organized so listeners can follow