Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations National Council of University Research Administrators Region IV Workshop 2008
Sarah E. Starr Director, Office of Funding and Research Development The Ohio State University Research Foundation Jeffrey RitchieGrants Management AnalystAurora Health Care Faculty
Ice Breaker Creating and Structuring a Presentation Interactive Activity Effective Public Speaking Instruction Break How to Train the Trainers Instruction Developing Confidence and Handling Nervousness Questions and Discussion Workshop Agenda
Creating the Presentation Features of any Presentation: • Specific Purpose • Structure • Supporting Materials
Creating Specific Purpose Key Questions to Ask: • Who is my Audience? • What do they bring to the Presentation? • What should they bring from the Presentation?
Structuring Your Presentation Every presentation has the following: • Introduction • Main Points • Conclusion
Creating an Introduction The Introduction consists of three objectives: • Get the attention and interest of the audience • Reveal the topic of the presentation • Establish the credibility of the speaker
State the importance of the topic Question the audience Begin with a quotation Tell a story Get Their Attention
Reveal The Topic • Listeners need help in sorting out a speaker’s ideas • Helps the audience know what to listen for • Allows you to define complicated terms clearly
Establish Your Credibility The 60-Second Job Interview • Tell about yourself • Explain your relevant experience • Convey your interest in the topic
Creating Main Points • Presentations typically have 2-3 Main Points • If more than that, your audience may be confused • Not all Main Points are created equal! • “Cluster” similar or related sub-points
Creating Main Points • Keep Main Points separate • Use the same pattern of wording • Balance time devoted to each point • Time spent on each Main Point depends on the amount of supporting materials
Structuring Main Points • Order is extremely important for both clarity and persuasiveness • There are different kinds of order: • Chronological: time pattern • Spatial: directional pattern • Causal: cause-effect relationship • Topical: divided into subtopics
The Conclusion • Closing remarks reinforce the Main Points • The conclusion always has two major functions: • Lets the audience know the presentation is ending • Reinforces the understanding of the central idea • Do not be abrupt
Reinforce the Central Idea • Summarize by restating the Main Points • End with a quotation • Make a dramatic statement • Refer back to the introduction
Methods to Signal the End • Simple statements • “In conclusion . . .” or “Before we wrap up…” • Ask for questions • “Is there anything that I haven’t covered?” • Thank your audience • “You’ve been great” • Leave • Don’t have multiple conclusions!
Creating Supporting Materials • Alone, main points are only assertions • Supporting materials give meaning • Supporting materials relate to critical thinking • Research to find supporting materials
“Most people are more deeply influenced by one clear, vivid, personal example than by an abundance of statistical data.” Eliot Aronson, Social Psychologist
Creating Examples • Illustrate a point • Use brief examples or specific instances • Pull listeners into the presentation • Tell a story vividly and dramatically • Explain hypothetical examples • Create a “real world” situation
Using Statistics • Quantify subjective material • Give ideas numerical precision • Add credibility to the presentation • Identify sources of statistical data
Misusing Statistics • Use statistics sparingly • Too many bore and confuse • Explain statistics • Interpret data for the listeners
Visual Examples • Round off complicated statistics • Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends
Electronic Presentations Benefits of Electronic Presentations • Simple • Portable • Impressive • Creative
Preparing Electronic Presentations Fonts and Text • Use textual cues consistently • (Keep font changes to a MIMIMUM) • Use bullets and other non-text as cues • Don’t let the technology be distracting
Preparing Electronic Presentations Backgrounds and Graphics • Backgrounds should be consistent • Graphics should be small, unobtrusive • Both should enhance the presentation
Preparing Electronic Presentations Using Special Effects • Transitions • Sound/Visual Effects • Video
Preparing Electronic Presentations Things Gone Wrong! • Bad Color Schemes (Can you read me now?) • Indecipherable Graphs & Charts • Reading vs. Speaking
Delivering Electronic Presentations Before Your Presentation: • Read and Spell Check (twice) • Run through it in front of a practice audience • The presentation doesn’t deliver itself! • Have back-up options. Why!?
Delivering Electronic Presentations Things gone horribly wrong… • Power Failure • Equipment Failure • I thought you brought the hand-outs!
Goals of the Presentation Reasons for public speaking: • Information • Persuasion • Training
The Informative Presentation Judged by three general criteria: • Is the information communicated accurately? • Is the information communicated clearly? • Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
Subjects of Informative Presentations • About objects • Tangible, visible, and stable • About processes • How to • About events • Occurrence or happening • About concepts • Beliefs, theories, ideas, principles, etc.
Guidelines for Informative Presentations • Do not overestimate what the audience knows • Relate the subject directly to the audience • Do not be too technical • Avoid abstractions
The Persuasive Presentation Goals of the persuasive presentation • Defending an idea • Selling a program • Refuting an opponent • Inspiring people
Subjects of Persuasive Presentations • Questions of fact • Persuading the audience to accept a view of the facts • Questions of value • Justifying the speaker’s opinion on value judgments • Questions of policy • Persuading people to a specific course of action
The Target Audience • A speaker will seldom be able to persuade all members of the audience • The message must be tailored to the audience • A speaker must decide which portion of the audience that is most desirable to reach • Persuasion is complex
Methods of Persuasion How are audiences persuaded? • They perceived the speaker as being credible • They are won over by the speaker’s evidence • They are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning • Their emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language
Public Speaking and Conversation • The average adult spends 30% of waking time in conversation • Conversation and public speaking both require clear communication • You spend much of your life practicing the art of conversation • Conversation and public speaking require similar skills
Skills Gained by Conversation • Logical organization of thoughts • Tailoring the message to the audience • Telling a story for maximum impact • Adapting to listener feedback
Differences from Conversation • Public speaking is more highly structured • Public speaking requires more formal language • Public speaking requires different methods of delivery
Critical Thinking and Public Speaking Public speaking requires • Sound logic • Organized ideas • Effective thinking • Clear expression • Accurate language
Speaker Message Channel Listener Feedback Interference Situation The Process of Public Speaking
Knowledge of subject Preparation of material Personal credibility Sensitivity to audience Manner of speaking Enthusiasm for speaking The Speaker
The Message • The Message belongs to the Presenter • The goal is to deliver the intended Message • Messages must be organized so listeners can follow