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Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations National Council of University Research Administrators Region IV Workshop 2008 Sarah E. Starr Director, Office of Funding and Research Development The Ohio State University Research Foundation

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training public speaking and professional electronic presentations

Training, Public Speaking and Professional Electronic Presentations

National Council of University Research Administrators

Region IV Workshop 2008

faculty
Sarah E. Starr

Director, Office of Funding and Research Development

The Ohio State University Research Foundation

Jeffrey RitchieGrants Management AnalystAurora Health Care

Faculty
workshop agenda
Ice Breaker

Creating and Structuring a Presentation

Interactive Activity

Effective Public Speaking Instruction

Break

How to Train the Trainers Instruction

Developing Confidence and Handling Nervousness

Questions and Discussion

Workshop Agenda
creating the presentation
Creating the Presentation

Features of any Presentation:

  • Specific Purpose
  • Structure
  • Supporting Materials
creating specific purpose
Creating Specific Purpose

Key Questions to Ask:

  • Who is my Audience?
  • What do they bring to the Presentation?
  • What should they bring from the Presentation?
structuring your presentation
Structuring Your Presentation

Every presentation has the following:

  • Introduction
  • Main Points
  • Conclusion
creating an introduction
Creating an Introduction

The Introduction consists of three objectives:

  • Get the attention and interest of the audience
  • Reveal the topic of the presentation
  • Establish the credibility of the speaker
get their attention
State the importance of the topic

Question the audience

Begin with a quotation

Tell a story

Get Their Attention
reveal the topic
Reveal The Topic
  • Listeners need help in sorting out a speaker’s ideas
  • Helps the audience know what to listen for
  • Allows you to define complicated terms clearly
establish your credibility
Establish Your Credibility

The 60-Second Job Interview

  • Tell about yourself
  • Explain your relevant experience
  • Convey your interest in the topic
creating main points
Creating Main Points
  • Presentations typically have 2-3 Main Points
  • If more than that, your audience may be confused
  • Not all Main Points are created equal!
  • “Cluster” similar or related sub-points
creating main points14
Creating Main Points
  • Keep Main Points separate
  • Use the same pattern of wording
  • Balance time devoted to each point
  • Time spent on each Main Point depends on the amount of supporting materials
structuring main points
Structuring Main Points
  • Order is extremely important for both clarity and persuasiveness
  • There are different kinds of order:
    • Chronological: time pattern
    • Spatial: directional pattern
    • Causal: cause-effect relationship
    • Topical: divided into subtopics
the conclusion
The Conclusion
  • Closing remarks reinforce the Main Points
  • The conclusion always has two major functions:
    • Lets the audience know the presentation is ending
    • Reinforces the understanding of the central idea
  • Do not be abrupt
reinforce the central idea
Reinforce the Central Idea
  • Summarize by restating the Main Points
  • End with a quotation
  • Make a dramatic statement
  • Refer back to the introduction
methods to signal the end
Methods to Signal the End
  • Simple statements
    • “In conclusion . . .” or “Before we wrap up…”
  • Ask for questions
    • “Is there anything that I haven’t covered?”
  • Thank your audience
    • “You’ve been great”
  • Leave
    • Don’t have multiple conclusions!
creating supporting materials
Creating Supporting Materials
  • Alone, main points are only assertions
  • Supporting materials give meaning
  • Supporting materials relate to critical thinking
  • Research to find supporting materials
slide20

“Most people are more deeply influenced by one clear, vivid, personal example than by an abundance of statistical data.”

Eliot Aronson, Social Psychologist

creating examples
Creating Examples
  • Illustrate a point
    • Use brief examples or specific instances
  • Pull listeners into the presentation
    • Tell a story vividly and dramatically
  • Explain hypothetical examples
    • Create a “real world” situation
using statistics
Using Statistics
  • Quantify subjective material
    • Give ideas numerical precision
  • Add credibility to the presentation
    • Identify sources of statistical data
misusing statistics
Misusing Statistics
  • Use statistics sparingly
    • Too many bore and confuse
  • Explain statistics
    • Interpret data for the listeners
visual examples
Visual Examples
  • Round off complicated statistics
  • Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends
electronic presentations
Electronic Presentations

Benefits of Electronic Presentations

  • Simple
  • Portable
  • Impressive
  • Creative
preparing electronic presentations
Preparing Electronic Presentations

Fonts and Text

  • Use textual cues consistently
  • (Keep font changes to a MIMIMUM)
  • Use bullets and other non-text as cues
  • Don’t let the technology be distracting
preparing electronic presentations29
Preparing Electronic Presentations

Backgrounds and Graphics

  • Backgrounds should be consistent
  • Graphics should be small, unobtrusive
  • Both should enhance the presentation
preparing electronic presentations30
Preparing Electronic Presentations

Using Special Effects

  • Transitions
  • Sound/Visual Effects
  • Video
preparing electronic presentations31
Preparing Electronic Presentations

Things Gone Wrong!

  • Bad Color Schemes (Can you read me now?)
  • Indecipherable Graphs & Charts
  • Reading vs. Speaking
delivering electronic presentations
Delivering Electronic Presentations

Before Your Presentation:

  • Read and Spell Check (twice)
  • Run through it in front of a practice audience
  • The presentation doesn’t deliver itself!
  • Have back-up options. Why!?
delivering electronic presentations33
Delivering Electronic Presentations

Things gone horribly wrong…

  • Power Failure
  • Equipment Failure
  • I thought you brought the hand-outs!
goals of the presentation
Goals of the Presentation

Reasons for public speaking:

  • Information
  • Persuasion
  • Training
the informative presentation
The Informative Presentation

Judged by three general criteria:

  • Is the information communicated accurately?
  • Is the information communicated clearly?
  • Is the information made meaningful and interesting to the audience?
subjects of informative presentations
Subjects of Informative Presentations
  • About objects
    • Tangible, visible, and stable
  • About processes
    • How to
  • About events
    • Occurrence or happening
  • About concepts
    • Beliefs, theories, ideas, principles, etc.
guidelines for informative presentations
Guidelines for Informative Presentations
  • Do not overestimate what the audience knows
  • Relate the subject directly to the audience
  • Do not be too technical
  • Avoid abstractions
the persuasive presentation
The Persuasive Presentation

Goals of the persuasive presentation

  • Defending an idea
  • Selling a program
  • Refuting an opponent
  • Inspiring people
subjects of persuasive presentations
Subjects of Persuasive Presentations
  • Questions of fact
    • Persuading the audience to accept a view of the facts
  • Questions of value
    • Justifying the speaker’s opinion on value judgments
  • Questions of policy
    • Persuading people to a specific course of action
the target audience
The Target Audience
  • A speaker will seldom be able to persuade all members of the audience
  • The message must be tailored to the audience
  • A speaker must decide which portion of the audience that is most desirable to reach
  • Persuasion is complex
methods of persuasion
Methods of Persuasion

How are audiences persuaded?

  • They perceived the speaker as being credible
  • They are won over by the speaker’s evidence
  • They are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning
  • Their emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language
public speaking and conversation
Public Speaking and Conversation
  • The average adult spends 30% of waking time in conversation
  • Conversation and public speaking both require clear communication
  • You spend much of your life practicing the art of conversation
  • Conversation and public speaking require similar skills
skills gained by conversation
Skills Gained by Conversation
  • Logical organization of thoughts
  • Tailoring the message to the audience
  • Telling a story for maximum impact
  • Adapting to listener feedback
differences from conversation
Differences from Conversation
  • Public speaking is more highly structured
  • Public speaking requires more formal language
  • Public speaking requires different methods of delivery
critical thinking and public speaking
Critical Thinking and Public Speaking

Public speaking requires

  • Sound logic
  • Organized ideas
  • Effective thinking
  • Clear expression
  • Accurate language
the process of public speaking
Speaker

Message

Channel

Listener

Feedback

Interference

Situation

The Process of Public Speaking
the speaker
Knowledge of subject

Preparation of material

Personal credibility

Sensitivity to audience

Manner of speaking

Enthusiasm for speaking

The Speaker
the message
The Message
  • The Message belongs to the Presenter
  • The goal is to deliver the intended Message
  • Messages must be organized so listeners can follow
the message51
The Message

A presenter is sending multiple messages:

  • Presentation
  • Body language
  • Appearance
  • Tone of voice
  • Gestures
  • Facial expression
  • Eye contact
the channel
The Channel
  • The channel is the means by which a message is communicated.
  • One-on-one conversation is the most direct channel for an individual.
  • Public speaking is the most direct channel for groups of individuals.
the listener
The Listener

Everything a speaker says is filtered through the listener’s frame of reference:

  • Knowledge
  • Experience
  • Goals
  • Values
  • Attitudes
an audience of listeners
An Audience of Listeners

Each listener has a different frame of reference

  • The speaker must be audience-centered
  • The speaker must speak with the audience constantly in mind
  • A presenter must make the audience feel that their ideas and thoughts are important
feedback
Feedback
  • Public speaking involves two-way communication
  • Listeners send back messages to the speaker
  • Feedback is an important element in for both the speaker and the listeners
interference
Interference
  • Interference is anything that impedes the communication of a message
  • Interference can come from any source
  • The solution to dealing with interference is to find many ways to hold the attention of the listeners
the situation
The Situation
  • The situation is the time and place in which the presentation occurs
  • Certain occasions require certain kinds of presentations
  • Physical setting is very important
  • Adjusting the situation of a presentation is simply doing conversation on a larger scale
analyzing the audience
Analyzing the Audience

The goal of the presentation is to gain a desired response from the listeners

  • What does the speaker want them to know, believe or do as a result of the presentation?
  • What is the most effective way to compose and present the presentation to accomplish the goals?
psychology of an audience
Psychology of an Audience
  • Why are you here?
  • Why is this important to you?
  • Why is this important, in general?
  • Listeners hear and judge everything based on what they think is important
  • Relate the message to show how it is important to them
adapting to the audience
Adapting to the Audience
  • Identify the major characteristics of the audience
  • Adapting the ideas to the audience
  • Keep the audience constantly in mind in preparinga presentation
  • Anticipate the needs of the audience
delivery
Delivery

Good delivery

  • Does not call attention to itself
  • Conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly, interestingly and without distraction
  • Combines formality with the best attributes of conversation
speaker s voice characteristics
Volume

Pitch

Rate

Vocal variety

Pronunciation

Articulation

Speaker’s Voice Characteristics
volume
Too loud = Overbearing

Too soft = Huh?

Pitch is the highness and lowness of one’s voice

Variations in pitch reveal questions, statements and keep speaker from being monotone

Volume
slide64
Rate
  • Too slow = Boring
  • Too fast = Huh?
  • Don’t be afraid to pause (without “um” and “er”)
  • Practice before a friendly audience
vocal variety
Vocal Variety
  • Flat, unchanging voice leads to a flat presentation
  • Follow instincts in changing rate, pitch, volume to reflect feelings
  • Variety is the spice of life!
pronunciation
Pronunciation
  • Every word has three aspects: read, written, and spoken
  • The problem lies when a speaker does not know the correct pronunciation of a word
  • Rehearse prior to delivery
articulation
Articulation
  • Articulation and pronunciation are not identical
  • Sloppy articulation fails to form sounds distinctly
  • Often a result of rushing through a presentation
  • Rehearse before delivery to detect articulation problems in a presentation
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication
  • Personal appearance
  • Bodily action
  • Gestures
  • Eye contact
summary
Summary
  • Public speaking experience begins with conversation
  • Public speaking requires critical thinking
  • A good speaker is audience-centered
  • There are different goals of a presentation and each should be focused on the goal
rapport
Rapport
  • Before the course
  • Phone or meet learners individually
  • Send out a pre-course survey to find out what issues they wish to address
  • Send a welcoming letter to each participant and to their supervisor
  • Make a list of things you would like the learners to say about you after a course

Source: Langevin Learning Services

rapport73
Rapport

During the course, make the learners feel:

  • Welcome
  • Safe
  • Comfortable
  • Important
  • Competent
  • Understood
  • Responsible

Source: Langevin Learning Services

slide74
Your age.

Multiply by 2.

Add five.

Multiply by 50.

Subtract 365.

Add any loose change in your pocket or purse under $1.00.

Add 115.

The result: Your Age + Your Loose Change!

Activity Time

if you love working with people you could become a trainer or a mortician
“If you love working with people you could become a trainer – or a mortician.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
  • Set people up in close physical proximity without overcrowding

Use separate tables so small groups are in clusters

  • Have a card on the table with suggestions about how to conduct themselves

Basic “etiquette” for being a good participant

Source: Langevin Learning Services

no no s for powerpoint presentations
NO NO’s for PowerPoint Presentations

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HLpjrHzgSRM

cohesiveness78
Cohesiveness
  • Point out that training is the time to ask questions, make mistakes, experiment, and try out new skills
  • Use an icebreaker that brings out shared experiences (e.g., give them five minutes to list things they all have in common)

Source: Langevin Learning Services

cohesiveness79
Cohesiveness
  • Set up exercises so that the team is successful
  • Focus on team achievement rather than individual achievement by giving feedback to the group about their progress

Source: Langevin Learning Services

we ve been through so much together and most of it was your fault
“We’ve been through so much together and most of it was your fault.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

learner confidence and self esteem
Learner Confidence and Self-Esteem
  • Ask learners to discuss each objective briefly to clarify meaning
  • Point out that their learning is in their own hands
  • Find value in peoples’ comments
  • Don’t intervene too quickly if learners are struggling
  • It is better to have too few than too many interventions

Source: Langevin Learning Services

never do for the learners what they can do for themselves
“Never do for the learners what they can do for themselves.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

participation involvement
Participation & Involvement
  • Arrange frequent small group sessions
  • Move away from the center of the room, sit rather than stand, move to the back of the room to take emphasis off yourself
  • Relay questions back to learners
  • Be quiet when you want participation (the learners will fill the silence)

Source: Langevin Learning Services

participation involvement84
Participation & Involvement
  • Give participants ten minutes at the beginning to ask questions about the course or the instructor
  • Get small groups to create questions together
  • Pause occasionally and ask for questions

Source: Langevin Learning Services

during training the learners should work harder than the leader
“During training, the learners should work harder than the leader.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

classroom layout
Classroom Layout
  • To maximize interaction, use layouts that allow the most eye-contact (e.g., a circle) and move people closer together
  • To minimize interaction, reduce eye-contact and spread learners apart in a larger room
  • Move learners’ locations to provide stimulation

Source: Langevin Learning Services

there is no substitute for genuine lack of preparation
“There is no substitute for genuine lack of preparation.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

efficient use of instructional time
Efficient Use of Instructional Time
  • Develop visuals (they speed learning)
  • Minimize time on Presentation and maximize time for Application and Feedback
  • Always start on time and ask learners to be on time
  • During exercises, circulate to help with blockages and spur the groups on

Source: Langevin Learning Services

time is nature s way of keeping everything from happening at once
“Time is nature’s way of keeping everything from happening at once.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

traits of a good leader
Listens carefully

Open to other ideas

Warm and friendly

Enjoys being with people

Tolerant of others

Supportive of others

Trusts others

Sense of humor

Decisiveness

Flexible

Traits of a Good Leader

Source: Langevin Learning Services

what gets across most is what we are rather than what we teach
“What gets across most is what we are rather than what we teach.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

slide92

Motivation

Source: Langevin Learning Services

four key factors in motivation
Four Key Factors in Motivation
  • The belief that the content is important
  • The learners want to learn
  • The course is set up for success
  • The learning is enjoyable

Source: Langevin Learning Services

mnemonics for trainers
Mnemonics for Trainers

M A F I A

H E I D I

Source: Langevin Learning Services

motivational techniques
Motivational Techniques
  • Be sure the content is relevant to their jobs
  • Point out how the content to be learned fits into the job
  • Find out what needs and expectations the learners have
  • Discuss what can and cannot be met
  • Modify your plans if feasible

Source: Langevin Learning Services

motivational techniques97
Motivational Techniques
  • Your first words should focus on the single biggest concern of your learners
  • Address their problems as soon as you begin speaking
  • Ask why they chose to attend
  • Frequently ask how things can be applied back on the job
  • Discuss the transfer of new skills to the workplace

Source: Langevin Learning Services

a yawn is at least an honest opinion
“A yawn is at least an honest opinion.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

feedback as motivation
Feedback as Motivation
  • Focus on the performance rather than personal qualities
  • Describe what you actually observed or felt rather than judging
  • Make sure the learner wants feedback

Source: Langevin Learning Services

feedback as motivation100
Feedback as Motivation
  • Give feedback as soon as possible
  • Give feedback only on things that learners can improve and control
  • Comment only on important items; ignore trivial points

Source: Langevin Learning Services

honest criticism is hard to take especially from a relative a friend an acquaintance or a stranger
“Honest criticism is hard to take, especially from a relative, a friend, an acquaintance or a stranger.”

Franklin Jones

Source: Langevin Learning Services

slide102

Group Dynamics

Source: Langevin Learning Services

characteristics of a healthy group
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • The atmosphere is informal, comfortable, relaxed
  • There is a lot of discussion in which everyone participates
  • The task of the group is well understood and accepted

Source: Langevin Learning Services

characteristics of a healthy group104
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • People listen to each other
  • Every idea is given a hearing
  • People are not afraid to put forth ideas
  • People are free in expressing feelings as well as their ideas
  • There is disagreement; this is not suppressed or overridden

Source: Langevin Learning Services

characteristics of a healthy group105
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • Issues are examined and the group seeks to resolve them together
  • Most decisions are reached by a kind of consensus in which there is general agreement and willingness to go along
  • Formal voting is at a minimum

Source: Langevin Learning Services

characteristics of a healthy group106
Characteristics of a Healthy Group
  • No one dominates; in fact, leadership shifts depending on circumstances
  • There is little evidence of power struggles
  • The main issue is how to get the job done
  • The group is conscious about how it operates
verbal behavior
Verbal Behavior
  • Task-Directed

Functions required in carrying out a group task.

  • Group Maintenance

Functions required to maintain good health of group.

  • Self-Oriented

Behaviors which contribute nothing to the group and may harm it.

Source: Langevin Learning Services

positive non verbal communication
Smiling

Nodding

Eye Contact

Relaxed Posture

Facing you directly

Unbuttoned jackets

Leaning forward

Sitting on edge of chair

Hands in open position

Legs and arms uncrossed

Positive Non-Verbal Communication
negative non verbal communication
Dead expression

Tight lips

Frowning

Avoiding eye contact

Squirming

Doodling

Fidgeting

Hands clenched or wringing

Turning away

Stiff or slumping posture

Sitting or leaning back

Crossed legs or arms

Negative Non-Verbal Communication
blessed is the trainer who has nothing to say and cannot be persuaded to say it
“Blessed is the trainer who has nothing to say and cannot be persuaded to say it.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

slide111

Consequences

Source: Langevin Learning Services

maintain modify behavior
Maintain/Modify Behavior
  • Is there enough participation?
  • Is participation well-balanced?
  • Do people listen to each other?
  • Are people having fun?
  • Who seems positive?
  • Who seems negative?

Source: Langevin Learning Services

discussion
Does the leader. . .

State the objective or purpose clearly?

State the time available?

Maintain subtle control?

Keep discussion on track?

Stay neutral during disagreements?

Express opinions only after the group has spoken?

Discussion

Source: Langevin Learning Services

if some instructors have a choice between listening and talking guess which they ll choose
“If some instructors have a choice between listening and talking, guess which they’ll choose?”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

after the course
After the Course
  • Phone or meet learners individually
  • Send out an evaluation form
  • Send a letter to each participant and their supervisor
  • Send a certificate to each participant

Source: Langevin Learning Services

continued development
Continued Development
  • Use evaluation forms at end of sessions
  • Stay in touch with people from this course
  • Read books from the bibliography that interest you
  • Evaluate yourself regularly
  • Videotape your sessions and look for strengths and weaknesses

Source: Langevin Learning Services

shift from training to performance

Shift from Training to Performance

Value of Training is Determined by how much Performance Improved Because of the Training

preparing for a presentation

Preparing for a Presentation

Putting All This Information To Work

preparing for a presentation122
Preparing for a Presentation
  • Get Started
  • Determine Partners
  • Develop a Timeline
  • Fine Tune
  • Practice
practice is the best of all instruction

Practice is the best of all instruction.”

Maxim 439, Publilues Syrus, First Century B.C.

handling leader anxiety
Handling Leader Anxiety
  • Check everything
  • Dress well
  • Meet people when they arrive. Introduce yourself, shake hands, be friendly
  • Use icebreakers
  • Remind yourself that you are the most “expert” person in the room

Source: Langevin Learning Services

handling leader burnout
Handling Leader Burnout

Causes:

  • Repetition and boredom
  • Plateaus of stagnation
  • Lack of success
  • Stress
  • Loss of purpose

Source: Langevin Learning Services

slide126

“One of the symptoms of an approaching nervous breakdown is the belief that one’s work is terribly important.”

dealing with nervousness
Dealing with Nervousness
  • Speechmaking is a common “greatest fear”
  • Fear is normal, acknowledge it!
  • Accept that you are not alone
  • Preparation and rehearsal reduce fear by 75%
  • Proper breathing reduces fear by 15%
  • Mental state accounts for only 10% of anxiety
there are two types of speakers those that are nervous and those that are liars

“There are two types of speakers: those that are nervous and those that are liars.”

Mark Twain

ten tips to reduce anxiety
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety

1. Know the room: become familiar with space, equipment, location

2. Know the audience: greet them as they enter, present to friends (no longer strangers)

3. Know your material: practice!

4. Learn how to relax: breathe slowly and do relaxation exercises

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars

ten tips to reduce anxiety130
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety

5. Visualize yourself speaking: imagine a successful presentation

6. Realize people want you to succeed: the audience wants a successful presentation

7. Don’t apologize for being nervous: it may not show, so don’t point it out!

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars

ten tips to reduce anxiety131
Ten Tips to Reduce Anxiety

8. Concentrate on the message, not the medium: focus on material and message; distract your attention off of nervousness

9. Turn nervousness into positive energy: fear is energy, use it to benefit your performance

10. Gain experience: do it, learn from it, and keep doing it!

Lenny Laskowsi, LJL Seminars

practice is everything

“Practice is everything.”

Pereandes Diogenes Laertius, c 200 AD, Periander 6

relaxation exercises
Relaxation Exercises
  • Techniques for reducing trainers’ anxiety can be used with learners:
    • Tense all muscles for a count of three, then relax. Repeat three or four times.
    • Breathe in deeply for a count of three, hold your breath for a count of twelve, breathe out for a count of six. Repeat three times.
  • The goal is to be “relaxed but alert.”

Source: Langevin Learning Services

review of public speaking
Review of Public Speaking
  • Public speaking skills begin through conversational experience
  • A speaker must be audience-centered
  • A speaker must be organized and well-prepared
review of preparing a presentation
Review of Preparing a Presentation
  • Use an outline format for both the presentation and the speaker’s notes
  • Keep the audience in mind
  • Reinforce the central idea
  • A good speaker is well-prepared
review of creating an electronic presentation
Review of Creating an Electronic Presentation
  • Assess the audience
  • Use the presentation outline
  • Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse
  • Do not expect the presentation to speak for the speaker
  • A good speaker is well-prepared
review of training
Review of Training
  • Climate
  • Rapport
  • Leader
  • Motivation
  • Group Dynamics
  • Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
  • What’s New in Training
final words of advice
Final words of advice:

Practice

makes

perfect!

slide140

“Talking and eloquence are not the same thing: to speak, and to speak well are two things. A fool may talk, but a wise man speaks.”

Ben Johnson

bibliography
Bibliography

R.R.H. Anholt, Dazzle “Em With Style, New York, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994

Jerry Wircenski, Technical Presentation Workbook: Winning Strategies for Effective Public Speaking, New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Press, 1996.

Michael Shortland and Jane Gregory, Communicating Science: A Handbook, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1991.

Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Cheshire, Conn., Graphics Press, 1983.

R. Finn, “The Art of Poster Presentation”, The Scientist, Jan. 25, 1993, p.20.

bibliography cont
Bibliography (cont.)

Stephen E. Lucas, The Art of Public Speaking , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

David Black, The Magic of Theater: Behind the Scenes with Today’s Leading Actors, New York: Collier, 1993.

Kathleen Kelley Reardon, Persuasion in Practice, Newbury Park: Sage, 1991.

Langevin Learning Services, Manotick, Ontario Canada