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Policies and Programs of ADB to Enhance Access to Finance for SME Joint Regional Symposium: Best Practice Regulatory Principles Supporting MSME Access to Finance Manila, 27 June 2011. Qifeng Zhang Principal Financial Sector Specialist Asian Development Bank.
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Policies and Programs of ADB to Enhance Access to Finance for SMEJoint Regional Symposium: Best Practice Regulatory Principles Supporting MSME Access to FinanceManila, 27 June 2011 Qifeng Zhang Principal Financial Sector Specialist Asian Development Bank The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this presentation and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Unless otherwise noted, $ refers to US dollars.
Outline • Introduction: about ADB • ADB’s Policies on SME Finance • ADB’s Operations on SME Finance • Good Practice for SME Finance (Financial Intermediation Program) • Two Examples of ADB Project for SME Sector Development • Final Remarks and Recommended Reading
Introduction: About ADB More info: <http://www.adb.org/About/> 3
ADB: a Regional Development Bank Established in 1966 67 members (48 regional, 19 non-regional) Vision: Asia and Pacific free of poverty Capital increase in 2009: from $55 billion to $165 billion AAA rated 4
Major Financial Instruments Loans Multitranche financing facility (MFF) Technical assistance (TA) Grant Equity investments Guarantees More info: <http://adb.org/documents/policies/financial-instruments-procedures/default.asp> 5
Departments in ADB Working on SME finance Public sector operations Central and West Asia Department (CWRD) East Asia Department (EARD) Pacific Department (PARD) South Asia Department (SARD) Southeast Asia Department (SERD) Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) Office of Regional Economic Integration (OREI) 6
2010 Approvals • Loans: $11.5 billion, for 118 loans • TAs: $175.5 million, for 243 projects • Grants: $982 million for 40 projects • Equity investments: $243 million, for 8 projects • Guarantees: $982 million for 5 projects Note: the foregoing consists of total approvals for all sectors.
2001: Private Sector Operations (PSO)– Strategic Directions and Review Four Major Elements of the PSO Strategy Focus primarily on existing strengths in infrastructure and capital markets Extend country and sector reach in new areas (New sector areas include: SME, IT and social infrastructure) Make wider use of innovative financial instruments Build strategic alliances and partnerships with other institutions More info: < http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/PSO/strategic-directions.pdf?bcsi_scan_7823DFCE46415F3E=IboKGwqcKeintJ6cw25bDgMAAABdW2kD&bcsi_scan_filename=strategic-directions.pdf > 9
2001: Private Sector Operations (PSO)– Strategic Directions and Review Policy Guidance on SME Finance under PSO Acknowledged key role of SMEs for economic prospects of most DMCs Assistance to SMEs to be provided mainly through investment funds or local institutions (i.e., financial intermediation) instead of direct lending Other appropriate models to be explored 10
2008: Long-Term Strategic Framework Five core areas of operations under this strategy (also called Strategy 2020) Infrastructure Environment Regional cooperation and integration Finance sector development (FSD) Education More info: <http://www.adb.org/strategy2020/> 11
FSD Under Strategy 2020 FSD is essential to ensuring sustainable private sector-led economic growth Support financial sector at the regional and national levels Develop financial infrastructure, institutions, and products and services Create enabling environment for microfinance, rural finance institutions, and SMEs Explore the use of technologies to expand the reach of the formal financial system Continue to help build the capacity of financial institutions—and of their regulators—by introducing international best practices 12
2011: Financial Sector Operational Plan Two priority areas for FSD under FS Operational Plan Financial inclusion (including SMEs’ access to finance) Capital markets for infrastructure finance 13
2011: Financial Sector Operational Plan Major focus for SMEs’ Access to finance Access to credit Financial infrastructure (secured transaction regime, contract enforcement mechanism, and credit information system) Leasing Credit guarantee Factoring Insurance Capital markets Trade financing 14
ADB SME Finance Projects Approvals (as of 14 March 2011) • Public sector loans: $840 million, for 18 projects • Non-sovereign operations (loan, equity investment, and guarantee): $543.2 million, for 49 projects • TA: $6.64 million for 16 projects • RETA: $0.33 million for 2 projects • Grant: $2.54 million for 1 project Total approvals: $1.39 billion
Good Practice for SME Finance (Financial Intermediation Program) • More info: <http://www.adb.org/Documents/SES/REG/SES-REG-2008-71/SES-REG-2008-71.pdf>
Creating a Conducive Policy and Regulatory Framework • To ease constraints on SME finance: • Lack of institutional interest in financing SMEs • Lack of property right or mechanism to enable SMEs pledge assets for borrowings • Lack of loan guarantee arrangement • Lack of competition in banking • Lack of credit information registries • Regulatory and institutional barriers for entry to capital markets
Financial Sector Policy To promote financial sector development: Maintain macroeconomic stability Deregulate interest rates for adequate spreads to cover lender’s cost Reduce barriers to entry to create a more competitive banking environment Enhance legal, regulatory, and prudential supervision framework 19
Prudential Standards Affecting SMEs Appropriate prudential norms for: Capital adequacy Portfolio quality Loan classification Loan provision Risk assessment systems Risk control capability of financial institutions management, staff, and supervisory agencies 20
Adequate Debt Recovery Systems Clear legal title to property Creation of security interests (permitted to pledge a variety of assets for borrowing) Perfection of security interests (accurate registries) Enforcement of security interests (permitted to agree to rapid, nonjudicial enforcement of loan contracts) Bankruptcy law and regulations 21
Information Collection and Use Regulatory framework for establishment and functioning of credit bureau Collection of positive as well as negative credit information Comprehensive information to include not only loan and credit card, but also payment history (trade creditors, retailers, utilities), lawsuits, and bankruptcy Enable sharing of data while protecting the rights of borrowers Protect the credit bureau in respect of their bona fide acts 22
Capacity Building for SME Lending Imparting international good practices is important for new or small SME financing institutions, to improve credit skills and operating processes Ownership of capacity building program Clear capacity development targets Proper sequencing of interventions Adequate incentive systems Recognition of local value Flexibility of the program Fitting the program into the bank’s overall strategy for SME finance for sustainability of the training Integrating the training into the bank’s plan and procedures (such as credit assessment methods) Interactivity, continuous refinement and improvement 23
Key Lessons for Profitable SME Lending Strong strategic approach and commitment Proper risk management framework Defined market segments, with core tailored products Cross-selling of deposit and fee-based products Separate department / division for SME lending Network and customer relationship with SMEs Centralized processing, with field marketing, origination, monitoring, and collection 24
Key Ingredients of Service Delivery Approach Strong sales culture, responsiveness, and dedication to efficiency Strong SME financing policies and procedures Strong decision-making and control mechanisms Lending officer made responsible throughout the entire lending cycle Performance-based compensation 25
Credit Guarantee Scheme Should be independent legal corporation, operated by the parties involved, and open to competing lending institutions Needs to prevent moral hazard and not to affect incentive for banks to monitor and retrieve loans Defines clearly the conditions that will trigger claims and repayment in the contract with lender 26
PAK: SME Sector Development Program Basic Info Country: Pakistan Year of ADB approval: 2003 Instruments: OCR loan: $152 million equivalent ADF loan: $18 million equivalent Partial credit guarantee: $65 million TA grant: $0.25 million More info on this project: <http://www.adb.org/projects/project.asp?id=34327> 28
PAK: SME Sector Development Program Major components in project design Key Result Area (KRA) 1: Improve SME policy environment Develop SME policy Establish effective labor protection and inspection policies Enhance effectiveness of SME Development Authority KRA 2: Improve market-based SME access to business development services KRA 3: Improve market-based access to and delivery of SME finance Improve regulatory and credit information infrastructure Build private financial institutions’ capacity Restructure and privatize the SME Bank 29
PAK: SME Sector Development Program Major outputs delivered under KRA for improving regulatory and credit information infrastructure Central bank issued prudential regulations for SME finance to support non collateral-based lending for SMEs Central bank improved asset classification and risk provisioning requirements A study was completed on strengthening the Secured Transactions Framework (establishing a system to create security interest on moveable and immovable assets to facilitate access to formal financial intermediations by small borrowers) New system was developed to enhance the Credit Information Bureau (CIB), by expanding coverage to all credit transactions (threshold eliminated) and shortening reporting period from within 15 days after the month of transaction to within 10 days from the date of settlement Credit information reports could be generated on consumer and corporate borrowers as essential credit information for lending decisions 30
PAK: SME Sector Development Program Assessment made by the Program Completion Report (PCR) as validated by Independent Evaluation Department (IED) Design and formulation of the program: relevant KRA 3.1 on improving regulatory and credit information infrastructure: fully satisfactory 31
PRC: Development of Financing Policies and Mechanisms for SME Basic info Country: People’s Republic of China (PRC) Year of ADB approval: 2000 Instrument: TA grant for $700,000 More info on this project: <http://www.adb.org/Documents/TARs/PRC/R294-00.pdf> <http://www.adb.org/Documents/TACRs/PRC/tacr_prc_3534.pdf> 32
PRC: Development of Financing Policies and Mechanisms for SME Scope of the project Provide advice on suitable SME finance policies and mechanisms Survey and review existing SME credit guarantee fund operations in PRC Identify suitable strategies and conditions for SME finance from equity investors Design a pilot equity support scheme for SME finance Disseminate TA findings 33
PRC: Development of Financing Policies and Mechanisms for SME Major outputs delivered - a comprehensive three-volume TA report comprising: Review and assessment of the SME-related policy in PRC, including major government support program Review of major laws and regulations in PRC in relation to SME financing Identification of major impediments Presentation of international practices (e.g., USA, Australia, etc) on government support to SMEs Provide model legislation, regulations, and operating procedures Recommendations on a broad range of issues, including establishment of a credit reporting system More details on TA consultant’s report: <http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Dev_SME_Fin_System/default.asp> 34
Final Remarks Access to finance alone is not the magic bullet for SME development. Holistic approach and synchronized efforts are needed to ease constraints in other areas, such as licensing, land/property title, judicial system, levies and taxes, etc. SME access to finance could not be addressed only through credit expansion. A financial eco-system is required, which includes suitable financial infrastructure (e.g., credit bureau, creation and enforcement of collateral) and mutually reinforcing financing channels (guarantee scheme, equity funds, venture capital, capital market) 36
Final Remarks Commercial banks may have natural tendency to shy away from SME lending. Tightening capital and liquidity rules may further disincentivize bank lending to SME. A balance is needed to continue supporting SME lending while maintaining financial stability (in particular avoiding systemic risk) Microfinance, SME finance, and corporate finance serve different market segments, and have distinctive features. Hence, the approach and focus of their regulation and supervision should also be tailor-made 37
Final Remarks Consumer protection and responsible finance are conducive to healthy financial sector development and should be properly incorporated in the structure of regulatory and supervision system for SME finance Country context differs. It is important to carefully examine key conditions for regulatory and supervision rules to be relevant, implementable, and effective Broad consultations with all stakeholders is a necessary step in the process of establishing/ improving regulatory and supervision rules Success lies in details and in coordination for implementation 38
Recommended reading • ADB: Enterprises in Asia-Fostering Dynamism in SMEs (2009) • http://www.adb.org/documents/books/key_indicators/2009/pdf/KI2009-Special-Chapter.pdf?bcsi_scan_7823DFCE46415F3E=b3Zj4fQw3bTkwVcQRmM+YwMAAACwzokD&bcsi_scan_filename=KI2009-Special-Chapter.pdf • AFI: Financial Inclusion and Financial Stability: Current Policy Issues (2010) • http://www.adbi.org/files/2010.12.21.wp259.financial.inclusion.stability.policy.issues.pdf • IFC: Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World (2010) • http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/gfm.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/G20SMEFinanceStocktaking/$FILE/G20_Stocktaking_Report.pdf?bcsi_scan_7823DFCE46415F3E=l73R9+A+ooEPdXkg6LdsEQMAAAADWo0D&bcsi_scan_filename=G20_Stocktaking_Report.pdf • Korea Capital Market Institute: Financial System Architecture for Effective SME Financing (2010) • http://www.aric.adb.org/pdf/seminarseries/SS37ppt_Financial_System_Architecture.pdf • KPMG: BASEL III: Issues and Implications (2011) • http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/basell-III-issues-implications.pdf