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Chapter 22 Cardiac Failure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 22 Cardiac Failure. Acute Pulmonary Edema. Buildup of Blood in Lungs. Increased Venous Return. Insufficient Pumping. Increased Capillary Pressure. Buildup of Fluid in Lungs. Peripheral Vasodilation. Diminished O 2 Transport. Treatment for Pulmonary Edema.

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acute pulmonary edema
Acute Pulmonary Edema

Buildup of Blood in Lungs

Increased Venous Return

Insufficient Pumping

Increased Capillary Pressure

Buildup of Fluid in Lungs

Peripheral Vasodilation

Diminished O2 Transport

treatment for pulmonary edema
Treatment for Pulmonary Edema
  • Tourniquets on arms and legs
  • Bleeding the Patient
  • Diuretic (e.g. furosemide)
  • Pure O2 to breathe
  • Cardiotonic drug (e.g. ouabain) to strengthen the heart
cardiac reserve
Cardiac Reserve
  • Maximum amount that the CO can increase.
  • Generally 300-400%.
  • Can be 500-600% in athletes.
  • Can be zero for diseased heart.
exercise test
Exercise Test
  • Put on a treadmill
  • Look for
    • Shortness of breath
    • Muscle fatigue
    • Increased heart rate.
graphical analysis of cardiac output
Graphical Analysis of Cardiac Output

AV Fistula

Normal

Normal Venous Return

heart defects
Heart Defects
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
    • (Left to Right Shunt)
    • Blue Baby
    • 4 abnormalities
      • Aorta (partially) originates from RV
      • Stenosed Pulmonary artery
      • Blood from the RV passes through a septal hole
      • Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • German Measels is a common cause of heart defects.
extracorporeal circulation
Extracorporeal Circulation
  • Methods:
    • Bubbling O2 through blood
    • Dripping blood over a large surface
    • Passing blood over rotating discs
    • Passing blood through thin membranes or porous tubes
  • Problems: Hemolysis, Clotting, Bubbles, Emboli of antifoam agent, need for large quantities of blood, need for heparin (inteference with hemostasis).
cardiac hypertrophy caused by congenital and valve diseases
Cardiac Hypertrophy Caused by Congenital and Valve Diseases
  • Generally occurs with all defects
  • Part of heart affected depends on type of defect
  • Extreme hypertrophy can cause heart failure
    • Coronary vasculature does not increase
    • Fibrosis often develops (especially subendocardial)
    • Ischemia can cause anginal pain.