ch 20 africa and the atlantic slave trade l.
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Ch. 20: Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Portugal led the way in exploring the African coast Established cities/factories for trade El Mina Luanda Other nations followed Portugal, brought competition Development of sugar plantations = need for slave labor. The Atlantic Slave Trade.

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the atlantic slave trade
Portugal led the way in exploring the African coast

Established cities/factories for trade

El Mina

Luanda

Other nations followed Portugal, brought competition

Development of sugar plantations = need for slave labor

The Atlantic Slave Trade

El Mina, a Portuguese coastal fortress

how many slaves were exported
How Many Slaves Were Exported?
  • As many as 12 million over four hundred years
  • High mortality + low birth rates = high demand for slaves
  • Brazil received 42% of slaves
  • Trans-Saharan slave trade was mostly in women in Islamic lands
  • Trans-Atlantic trade took men for agricultural labor
development of the slave trade
Portugal controlled most of it

From 1630 on, competition increased

Dutch seized El Mina

BritishRoyal Africa Company

Followed by France

Purchases of slaves made through local rulers

Slave prices were based on the healthy male – Indies Piece

Triangular trade developed

Development of the Slave Trade
african societies slavery and the slave trade
African Societies, Slavery, and the Slave Trade
  • Traditions of slavery deeply engrained in economic systems and social hierarchy
  • In Islam, slavery accepted, but only non-Muslims
slavery and african politics
Slavery and African Politics
  • Europeans tapped into the established slave trade
    • Settled along the coast
    • Intensified the slave trade
  • Warfare typified much of Sub-Sahara Africa
  • Ghana and Songhay took advantage – became intermediaries in slave trade
west coast asante dahomey east coast swahili sudan
Serve as examples of the impact of slave trade

Asante (Ashanti) rose to prominence during the slave trade

Ruled along the Gold Coast

Ruled for two centuries (1650-1820)

Dahomey

Traded slaves for European firearms

Swahili Coast on the East Coast of Africa brought ivory, gold, slaves from the interior

West Coast: Asante/Dahomey& East Coast: Swahili/Sudan
south africa
Bantu peoples in southern Africa were organized around small chiefdoms

Southern expansion brought Dutch contact

Settlers moving inland from Cape Colony looking for farmland

British control from 1815 led to warfare with Bantu

Boer Great Trek

South Africa
zulu rise to power
Zulu Rise to Power
  • Shaka chief of the Zulu (1818)
    • Created a powerful state that survived his death
  • All of southern Africa was involved in turmoil called mfecane (1815 – 1840)
the african diaspora
The African Diaspora
  • Slave trade not only forcibly brought slaves into a different culture, it brought foreign products into Africa
  • The Middle Passage was traumatic for slaves and often lethal
  • Africans in the Americans often employed in agricultural labor
slave societies in the americas
Slave Societies in the Americas
  • A hierarchy developed distinguishing saltwater slaves (newly arrived) from creole descendants
  • Creoles could gain more skilled work in better conditions
  • N. American slave population had a higher birth rate
    • Less need for new slaves
    • More cut off from Africa than slaves in other areas
end of the slave trade abolition of slavery
End of the Slave Trade / Abolition of Slavery
  • Abolition resulted from changes outside of Africa
  • Main change was from European intellectuals
    • William Wilberforce
  • British stopped the slave trade in 1807
  • Slavery was finally abolished in the Americas when Brazil stopped the practice in 1888