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CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA. Bantu Migration-spread of Bantu language west to central and southern Africa Trade Salt for Gold Spread of Islam and Arabic Slavery Colonialization Issues Today. Yes, Neumo did this one surprised?. Bantu Migration. Bantus.

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chapter 12 brief history of africa
  • Bantu Migration-spread of Bantu language west to central and southern Africa
  • Trade Salt for Gold
  • Spread of Islam and Arabic
  • Slavery
  • Colonialization
  • Issues Today

Yes, Neumo did this one


  • When Bantu-speaking farmers migrated, Bantu languages spread throughout much of central and southern Africa
  • You can still hear the languages spoken today
  • Swahili is a form of Bantu and Arabic—mostly spoken in Eastern Africa
  • The ancient Bantu peoples lived in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Sub-Saharan means South of the Sahara Desert
  • When they began to migrate and trade with central and south Africa, their knowledge of iron making, religious practices, and language spread

Ancestors of the Bantus make

up 2/3 of today’s African population.

They inhabit the Southern and

Eastern part of the continent.

The Bantus are known for being more of a language group rather than

a distinct ethnic group.

The most widely spoken Bantu language is Swahili. This is spoken by

50 million Africans in Eastern Africa.

salt for gold

Salt for Gold



The build up of the trans-Saharan trade routes developed because of the availability of the camel and the need to trade salt for gold.

west africa had the gold north africa had the salt
West Africa had the GoldNorth Africa had the Salt
  • Around the time that East and North African city-states were developing, great trading areas arose on the west side of the continent.
  • Trade routes were developed across the Sahara desert trading salt for gold.
  • With the trade, came the diffusion of religion and language
salt for gold11
Salt for Gold
  • Tombuctu, Mali, becomes a major trading city. It is on the edge of the Sahara and the Sahel. “Crossroads of the caravans”
  • Northern traders spread the religion of Islam and the Arabic language along their routes



had more

than gold,

also: ivory,

spices, and


Caravan crossing Ahaggar Mts-central Sahara






salt for gold13
Salt for Gold
  • City-states—a city that has its own traditions, government and laws. It is both a city and country. The city controls much of the surrounding land.
  • Trans-Sahara route—Trans means across, Sahara—place, route—
  • Diffusion—spreading, mixing of cultures
  • Top 3 reasons for Europe coming and taking over Africa
    • 1. Industrial Revolution--resources
    • 2. Nationalism—who has power
    • 3. Spread Christianity
    • Western Hemisphere controlled by the USA



Source for










For Colonization

Markets forFinishedGoods

Military& NavalBases


Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul.


Soc. & Eco.Opportunities


1. Where Is Dr. Livingstone?

DoctorLivingstone,I Presume?

Sir Henry Morton Stanley

Dr. DavidLivingstone


2. What is the Source of the Nile?

Sir Richard Burton

John Speke









European Claims 1914

The artificial boundaries created

by the Europeans had the effect

of bringing together many

different ethnic people within a

nation, that did not reflect

nor have the ability to

accommodate or provide for,

the cultural and ethnic


scramble for africa
Scramble for Africa
  • Also known as the Race for Africa
  • All of this territory claiming by European nations caused a competitive rush for territory in Africa
  • As a result, Germany initiated a conference in 1884 for European nations to regulate the rush for territory

When the European Colonialists came,

they had the Bible, we had the land.

They said, “Let’s close our eyes and


When we opened our eyes, we had the

Bible, and they had the land.”

Randall Robinson

the atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade

Before the 1500’s, slavery was common in some parts of Africa.

Then the European powers began to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere—North, Central, South America

The Europeans practiced a different type of slavery—you couldn’t buy your way out or win your way out

European settlers in the Americas needed workers for their mines and plantations. The settlers know Africans were skilled farmers, miners, and metal workers.

By the 1600’s, The slave trade evolved out or traders exchanging goods


Slave ships were packed

head to toe

Many did not make the


Africans transporting Africans

the atlantic slave trade32
The Atlantic Slave Trade

Some African nations refused to take part

Some sold people they captured during battles or kidnapping

Some Africans grew wealthy from the slave trade

the atlantic slave trade33
The Atlantic Slave Trade

Overall, the slave trade was a disaster for Africa

West Africa especially—lost much of its population

Robbed of skilled workers, and with many families torn apart, many African societies broke down

When the slave trade ended, natural resources were raided

slavery still exists today
Slavery Still Exists Today
  • Slavery in Africa continues today. Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans - as did a slave trade that exported millions of sub-Saharan Africans to North Africa, the Middle East, and the Persian Gulf.



2 countries remained
2 Countries Remained
  • Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent during colonization
  • Liberia—set up by former American Slaves
  • Ethiopia was able to resist attempts of colonization by the British and particularly by the Italians. Italy was able to colonize a part of ancient Ethiopia, the area along the Red Sea. This was the colony and now the independent country of Eritrea.
  • Ethiopians won a decisive victory over Italy at the Battle of Adowa. 4,000 Italian soldiers were killed.
south africa
South Africa
  • The Zulus showed strong resistance to the British under the leadership of King Cetshwayo at Isandhlawana. They defeated a force of 8,000 European soldiers, killing 1,600. This was the single greatest defeat suffered by the British in their colonial endeavors in Africa and Asia.
  • WWII would inspire many people throughout Africa to seek freedom for their own countries.
  • African colonies played a major role during the war. African soldiers fought and died to help free Europe from Nazi conquest.
  • “We have been told what we fought for. That is FREEDOM.”
notice the years of independence

Notice the Years ofIndependence

African Countries are young!

Not Use to governing themselves.

Left in economic shambles

Different ways to become Independent—Conflict/Peace

Some European powers fought to keep, some did not

many new governments unstable
Many new governments unstable
  • New leaders spent years working for independence.
  • The old colonial powers did little to prepare new leadership
  • As a result, many new governments in Africa were unstable
  • Many governments looked to the US and USSR for stability
  • Many governments have been a constant turnover of dictators

What is a Conflict Diamond?

Conflict diamonds are diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internationally recognized governments, and are used to fund military action in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the Security Council.

Legitimate diamonds lead to peace and economic development

Conflict diamonds finance illegal armies and sufferings

  • HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in many areas of Africa
  • Misinformation or no information doesn’t help
  • Lack of money for drugs or lack of drugs
  • No government—anarchy
  • War lords control areas—need money to stay in power
  • Few paying legitimate jobs for people

Piracy off the Somali coast has been a threat to international shipping since the beginning of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s.[1] Since 2005, many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization and the World Food Program, have expressed concern over the rise in acts of piracy.[2] Piracy has contributed to an increase in shipping costs and impeded the delivery of food aid shipments. Ninety percent of the World Food Program's shipments arrive by sea, and ships have required a military escort.[3] According to the Kenyan foreign


Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition navaltask force with logistics facilities at Djibouti established to monitor, inspect, board, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the War on Terrorism and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and operations in the Indian Ocean) to support Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA). These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations

darfur sudan
  • The Darfur Conflict began in Darfur, Sudan, in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in Darfur took up arms, accusing the government of oppressing black Africans in favor of Arabs. There are various estimates on the number of human casualties. One side was composed mainly of the Sudanese military and the Janjaweed, a Sudanese militia group recruited mostly from the Afro-ArabAbbala tribes of the northern Rizeigat region in Sudan! These tribes are mainly camel-herding nomads. The other side was made up of rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army and the Justice and Equality Movement, recruited primarily from the non-Arab muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. The Sudanese government, while publicly denying that it supports the Janjaweed, is accused of providing financial assistance to the militia, and of participating in joint attacks targeting civilians.
  • The Sudanese government has been accused of tampering with evidence, such as attempting to cover up mass graves. They also arrested and harassed journalists, thus limiting the extent of press coverage of the situation in Darfur.
  • While the United States government has described the conflict as genocide, the UN has not recognized the conflict as such.

Refugee Camp in Chad

Refugees fleeing conflicts from all over Africa cause problems all their own


In Eritrea, a Russian-made rocket launcher fires into Ethiopia from the southern border town of Serha in June 1998. Optimism was high after Eritrea secured its independence from Ethiopia in 1993 without a shot fired. Then, five years later, war broke out. The border conflict with Ethiopia cost the lives of thousands and destroyed the Eritrean economy.


Daniel, an 11-year-old street child, stands in the remains of a market in Burundi. In the same week that this photo was taken, a bomb killed five people and injured several more in a terrorist attack on another small market in town. Since 1993, civil war and ethnic violence between Hutus and Tutsis have led to the deaths of nearly 250,000 Burundians. The most recent attempt at peace - August 2000 -- failed when two main Hutu groups refused to join the pact between the government and various warring factions.


Years of civil war and conflict have left parts of Africa virtual dumping grounds for deadly antipersonnel mines. Angola, Mozambique, and Somalia are some of the most heavily mined places on earth. While the UN and various non-governmental organizations have had some success in removing mines, the human price remains heavy. In Mozambique, nearly 10,000 people -- mostly civilians -- are estimated to have been killed or maimed by land mines since the 1992 peace accord that ended 20 years of civil war. Here, a UN worker tries to locate a landmine not far from Kenya's border with war-torn Sudan.


CHILD SOLDIERS—Taken from homes by force

"They have the dull, emotionless look of people who have seen some hideous things," commented BBC correspondent Mathew Price when he interviewed child soldiers in Sierra Leone recently. Many children are abducted by rebel groups and given drugs that enhance their fighting. Others are "recruited" to fight for the government. There are no clear estimates of how many children fight in Africa's wars. In Sudan, more than 10,000 children are believed to be fighting for both the Islamic government in the north and Christian and animist rebels in the south.


American dollars are welcome in this Mogadishu shop, but weapons, cigarettes and khat,a local narcotic, are forbidden. Fighting back against armed gunmen, shopkeepers and business people in the center of Somalia's capital paint murals on their buildings to establish the rules for acceptable conduct. Since 1991, Somalia has been essentially ruled by rival warlords supported by heavily armed militias. There is no officially recognized government. Fighting and the inability to deal with famine and disease have led to the death of up to 1 million Somalians.


Nowhere in Africa has ethnic genocide taken a more brutal toll than Rwanda. When Hutu extremists went on a killing spree in 1994 that exterminated more than 500,000 Tutsis, Emanual Murangira, pictured here, was shot in the head in Murumbi and left for dead. To save his life, he walked 50 miles to escape into neighboring Burundi. His forehead still bears traces of the bullet wound. Today, Emanual is a guard at a memorial to the Murumbi genocide that displays the remains of the victims.


In southern Sudan, child slaves wait for Christian Solidarity International to buy their freedom from Muslim slave masters. The price? Twenty-five dollars per slave. These boys, ethnic Dinkas, live in the mostly Christian and animist south, a rebel territory that Sudan's Islamic government wants to occupy. The war has dragged on since 1976, causing the deaths of millions and the displacement of even more.


In Freetown, three of Africa's former military rulers stare down on passers-by: Ghana's Jerry Rawlings, Sierra Leone's Captain Valentine Strasser and Nigeria's Ibrahim Babangida. In the turbulent post-independence period of the 1970s and 1980s, military leaders seemed an inevitable fixture of African politics. Today, none of these three strongmen remain in power, and democratic governments have replaced dictatorships across the continent, fueling hopes for an era of African peace and prosperity.


Oblivious of an Indian and Nigerian-manned UN checkpoint, a woman walks along a street in Freetown, the capital of West Africa's Sierra Leone, where a war over diamond mines has raged since 1991. In many African countries, UN peacekeepers have become an ever-present force.


Voting Lines.

South Africa

Some stood for hours to vote for the first time!


Half the world -- nearly three billion people -- live on less than two dollars a day.

  • The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the poorest 48 nations (a quarter of the world's countries) is less than the wealth of the world's three richest people combined.

Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.

  • If the world spent less than one percent of what it spends every year on weapons, in education, every child could go to school