CHAPTER 12 BRIEF HISTORY OF AFRICA. Bantu Migration-spread of Bantu language west to central and southern Africa Trade Salt for Gold Spread of Islam and Arabic Slavery Colonialization Issues Today. Yes, Neumo did this one surprised?. Bantu Migration. Bantus.
Yes, Neumo did this one
up 2/3 of today’s African population.
They inhabit the Southern and
Eastern part of the continent.
The Bantus are known for being more of a language group rather than
a distinct ethnic group.
The most widely spoken Bantu language is Swahili. This is spoken by
50 million Africans in Eastern Africa.
The build up of the trans-Saharan trade routes developed because of the availability of the camel and the need to trade salt for gold.
Caravan crossing Ahaggar Mts-central Sahara
Places toDumpUnwanted/Excess Popul.
Soc. & Eco.Opportunities
Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Sir Richard Burton
The artificial boundaries created
by the Europeans had the effect
of bringing together many
different ethnic people within a
nation, that did not reflect
nor have the ability to
accommodate or provide for,
the cultural and ethnic
they had the Bible, we had the land.
They said, “Let’s close our eyes and
When we opened our eyes, we had the
Bible, and they had the land.”
Before the 1500’s, slavery was common in some parts of Africa.
Then the European powers began to establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere—North, Central, South America
The Europeans practiced a different type of slavery—you couldn’t buy your way out or win your way out
European settlers in the Americas needed workers for their mines and plantations. The settlers know Africans were skilled farmers, miners, and metal workers.
By the 1600’s, The slave trade evolved out or traders exchanging goods
head to toe
Many did not make the
Africans transporting Africans
Some African nations refused to take part
Some sold people they captured during battles or kidnapping
Some Africans grew wealthy from the slave trade
Overall, the slave trade was a disaster for Africa
West Africa especially—lost much of its population
Robbed of skilled workers, and with many families torn apart, many African societies broke down
When the slave trade ended, natural resources were raided
African Countries are young!
Not Use to governing themselves.
Left in economic shambles
Different ways to become Independent—Conflict/Peace
Some European powers fought to keep, some did not
Conflict diamonds are diamonds that originate from areas controlled by forces or factions opposed to legitimate and internationally recognized governments, and are used to fund military action in opposition to those governments, or in contravention of the decisions of the Security Council.
Legitimate diamonds lead to peace and economic development
Conflict diamonds finance illegal armies and sufferings
Piracy off the Somali coast has been a threat to international shipping since the beginning of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s. Since 2005, many international organizations, including the International Maritime Organization and the World Food Program, have expressed concern over the rise in acts of piracy. Piracy has contributed to an increase in shipping costs and impeded the delivery of food aid shipments. Ninety percent of the World Food Program's shipments arrive by sea, and ships have required a military escort. According to the Kenyan foreign
Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition navaltask force with logistics facilities at Djibouti established to monitor, inspect, board, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the War on Terrorism and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and operations in the Indian Ocean) to support Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA). These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations
Refugees fleeing conflicts from all over Africa cause problems all their own
In Eritrea, a Russian-made rocket launcher fires into Ethiopia from the southern border town of Serha in June 1998. Optimism was high after Eritrea secured its independence from Ethiopia in 1993 without a shot fired. Then, five years later, war broke out. The border conflict with Ethiopia cost the lives of thousands and destroyed the Eritrean economy.
Daniel, an 11-year-old street child, stands in the remains of a market in Burundi. In the same week that this photo was taken, a bomb killed five people and injured several more in a terrorist attack on another small market in town. Since 1993, civil war and ethnic violence between Hutus and Tutsis have led to the deaths of nearly 250,000 Burundians. The most recent attempt at peace - August 2000 -- failed when two main Hutu groups refused to join the pact between the government and various warring factions.
Years of civil war and conflict have left parts of Africa virtual dumping grounds for deadly antipersonnel mines. Angola, Mozambique, and Somalia are some of the most heavily mined places on earth. While the UN and various non-governmental organizations have had some success in removing mines, the human price remains heavy. In Mozambique, nearly 10,000 people -- mostly civilians -- are estimated to have been killed or maimed by land mines since the 1992 peace accord that ended 20 years of civil war. Here, a UN worker tries to locate a landmine not far from Kenya's border with war-torn Sudan.
"They have the dull, emotionless look of people who have seen some hideous things," commented BBC correspondent Mathew Price when he interviewed child soldiers in Sierra Leone recently. Many children are abducted by rebel groups and given drugs that enhance their fighting. Others are "recruited" to fight for the government. There are no clear estimates of how many children fight in Africa's wars. In Sudan, more than 10,000 children are believed to be fighting for both the Islamic government in the north and Christian and animist rebels in the south.
American dollars are welcome in this Mogadishu shop, but weapons, cigarettes and khat,a local narcotic, are forbidden. Fighting back against armed gunmen, shopkeepers and business people in the center of Somalia's capital paint murals on their buildings to establish the rules for acceptable conduct. Since 1991, Somalia has been essentially ruled by rival warlords supported by heavily armed militias. There is no officially recognized government. Fighting and the inability to deal with famine and disease have led to the death of up to 1 million Somalians.
Nowhere in Africa has ethnic genocide taken a more brutal toll than Rwanda. When Hutu extremists went on a killing spree in 1994 that exterminated more than 500,000 Tutsis, Emanual Murangira, pictured here, was shot in the head in Murumbi and left for dead. To save his life, he walked 50 miles to escape into neighboring Burundi. His forehead still bears traces of the bullet wound. Today, Emanual is a guard at a memorial to the Murumbi genocide that displays the remains of the victims.
In southern Sudan, child slaves wait for Christian Solidarity International to buy their freedom from Muslim slave masters. The price? Twenty-five dollars per slave. These boys, ethnic Dinkas, live in the mostly Christian and animist south, a rebel territory that Sudan's Islamic government wants to occupy. The war has dragged on since 1976, causing the deaths of millions and the displacement of even more.
In Freetown, three of Africa's former military rulers stare down on passers-by: Ghana's Jerry Rawlings, Sierra Leone's Captain Valentine Strasser and Nigeria's Ibrahim Babangida. In the turbulent post-independence period of the 1970s and 1980s, military leaders seemed an inevitable fixture of African politics. Today, none of these three strongmen remain in power, and democratic governments have replaced dictatorships across the continent, fueling hopes for an era of African peace and prosperity.
Oblivious of an Indian and Nigerian-manned UN checkpoint, a woman walks along a street in Freetown, the capital of West Africa's Sierra Leone, where a war over diamond mines has raged since 1991. In many African countries, UN peacekeepers have become an ever-present force.
Some stood for hours to vote for the first time!
Half the world -- nearly three billion people -- live on less than two dollars a day.
Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.