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Today’s topics. System V Interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism Message Queues Semaphores Shared Memory Summary of processes related concepts. Why other IPC mechanisms. Pipes/sockets FIFO semantics Signals: sending flags Sometimes, we want something beyond FIFO

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today s topics

Today’s topics

System V Interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism

Message Queues

Semaphores

Shared Memory

Summary of processes related concepts

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

why other ipc mechanisms

Why other IPC mechanisms

Pipes/sockets

FIFO semantics

Signals: sending flags

Sometimes, we want something beyond FIFO

FIFO with tags (message queue)

File semantics: the content is always there unless it is modified explicitly. (shared memory)

Once concurrency is allowed in shared data, we will need a way to protect (lock) the data. (semaphore)

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

message queues
Message queues
  • What are they?
    • Similar to the FIFO pipes, except that a tag (type) is matched when reading/writing.
      • Allowing cutting in line (I am only interested in a particular type of message)
      • Equivalent to merging of multiple FIFO pipes in one.

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

message queues1
Message queues
  • Creating a message queue:
    • int msgget(key_t key, int msgflag);
    • Key can be any large number. But to avoiding using conflicting keys in different programs, use ftok() (the key master).
      • key_t ftok(const char *path, int id);
        • Path point to a file that the process can stat
        • Id: project ID, only the last 8 bits are used

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

slide5
Message queue.
    • A linked list of messages stored within the kernel and identified by a message queue identifier.
      • Every message has a type field, and a nonnegative length, and the actual data bytes.
      • Msgsnd puts a message at the end of the queue
      • Msgrcv gets a message, may not follow FIFO order (can be based on type)
      • Has resource limits: MSGMAX, MSGMNB, etc

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

slide6
Message queue operations

Int msgget(key_t, int flag)

Int msgctl(int msgid, int cmd, struct msgid_ds *buf)

Int msgsnd(int msgid, const void *ptr, size nbytes, int flag);

Int msgrcv(int msgid, void *ptr, size_t nbytes, long type, int flag);

  • Performance advantage is no longer there in newer systems (compared with pipe)

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

shared memory
MAX

Shared Memory

(unique key)

Create

ptr

ptr

Attach

Attach

0

ptr

ptr

ptr

Proc. 4

Proc. 5

Proc. 3

Shared Memory

Common chunk of read/write memory

among processes

Proc. 2

Proc. 1

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

creating shared memory
Creating Shared Memory

int shmget(key_t key, size_t size, int shmflg);

Example:

key_t key;

int shmid;

key = ftok(“", ‘A');

shmid = shmget(key, 1024, 0644 | IPC_CREAT);

Here’s an example: shm_create.c.

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

attach and detach shared memory
Attach and DetachShared Memory

void *shmat(int shmid, void *shmaddr, int shmflg);

int shmdt(void *shmaddr);

Example:

key_t key;

int shmid;

char *data;

key = ftok("", ‘A');

shmid = shmget(key, 1024, 0644);

data = shmat(shmid, (void *)0, 0);

shmdt(data);

Here’s an shm_attach.c

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

deleting shared memory
Deleting Shared Memory

int shmctl(int shmid, int cmd, struct shmid_ds *buf);

shmctl(shmid, IPC_RMID, NULL);

Example: Shm_delete.c

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

command line ipc control
Command-line IPC control
  • ipcs
    • Lists all IPC objects owned by the user
  • ipcrm
    • Removes specific IPC object

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

semaphores
Semaphores
  • Managing concurrent access to shared memory segment.
  • Using Semaphores
    • Creation: semget( … )
    • Incr/Decr/Test-and-set : semop(…)
    • Deletion: semctl(semid, 0, IPC_RMID, 0);

Online tutorial

http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~beej/guide/ipc/semaphores.html

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

slide13
Process environment
    • Command line arguments: argc, argv
    • environ and getenv()
    • getpid(), getuid(), getppid()
    • How does a program access the second (command line) argument?
    • How does a process access the variable you set in shell using commands such as “setenv TERM vt100”?
    • How does a process know its parent’s process id? How does a parent know its children’s process ids?
slide14
Process management
    • fork, exit, wait, waitpid, execv
    • How can a parent process know whether its child has executed successfully?
    • How to determine whether execv runs a command successfully?
slide15
File operations:
    • What are the related data structures for file operations?
    • open, close, read write, unlink, dup.
    • How to redirect the standard input/output/error?
slide16
Inter-process communication:
    • Pipe
    • What kind of processes can communicate with pipes?
    • How to implement “ps | grep xyuan | more”?
    • Message queue
    • Shared memory
    • semaphore
slide17
Inter-process communication:
    • Signal
    • What is the typical default action for a signal?
    • Blocking/unblocking a signal
      • sigset manipulation
        • sigfillset, sigemptyset, sigaddset, sigdelset, sigismember
      • the sigprocmask system call
    • Install signal handler (can ignore a signal or use default handler)
      • signal
      • sigaction
    • Sending signal: kill, alarm
slide18
Terminal I/O
    • canonical mode
    • noncanonical mode
      • tcgetattr, tcsetattr
      • termios data structure
slide19
Process group/session/control terminal
    • Related to job control
      • Who gets to access the keyboard? Who to send signal generated from the keyboard.
    • Foreground and background processes
    • Joining a group or creating a group: setpgid
    • Making a group foreground or background
      • tcgetpgrp/tcsetpgrp
realizing shell make commands
Realizing shell/make commands
  • IO redirection
  • Pipes
  • Background execution
  • “arrow” functions
  • ‘cd’ command
    • Why is this command different from other commands?
  • PATH environment variable.

COP5570 – Advanced Unix Programming

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