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Topics for Today

Topics for Today

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Topics for Today

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  1. Topics for Today • From Soap to Biodiesel!

  2. Topics for Today • Why biodiesel? • How are soap and biodiesel different? No text readings

  3. Topics for Friday EXAM 4!!!!

  4. For Monday • Connecting the amino acids…

  5. Topics • Amines (review) • Amides (review) • Nylons (review) • Amino Acids • Proteins

  6. Readings for Monday • 11.6 Proteins: First among equals • 11.7 Good nutrition and alternative diets: Getting enough protein

  7. Topics for Today • From Soap to Biodiesel!!

  8. Review - Soap • Generic term for the soluble salt of a fatty acid

  9. Sopanification • The process of making soap • 1) Hydrolysis of the fat (water is used) • 2) Neutralizing the fatty acid (water is produced)

  10. When soaps DON’T work… What is hard water?

  11. Water with lots of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions

  12. Soap in soft water Soluble in water “Separates” into ions

  13. O C O- O O O C C C O- O- O- Soap in soft water Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+

  14. Soap in hard water • Soap interacts with the Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. NOT soluble!!!!

  15. O O C C O- O- Soaps form complexes with Mg2+ and Ca2+!! Soap in hard water So what? Na+ Mg2+ Mg2+ O- O- C C O O Na+ Na+ Na+

  16. O O C C O- O- Soap in hard water Na+ Mg2+ Mg2+ O- O- C C O O Na+ Insoluble in water (soap scum)!!! Na+ Na+

  17. Soap (soluble) • SCUM (insoluble) Falls out of the water

  18. O O C C O- O- Na+ + Ca2+ (or Mg2+) Na+

  19. O O C C O- O- + 2Na+ Mg2+ (or Ca2+) SCUM

  20. How do you prevent soap scum? Why detergents? • Use soft water • Use detergents

  21. Detergents • Same as soaps, but a different polar end. Usually a sulfate or a phosphate!!

  22. Soapsodium stearate O + H C ( C H ) C N a 3 2 1 6 O Non-polar hydrocarbon chain Polar ionic group, soluble in water

  23. DetergentSodium Lauryl Sulfonate Why don’t detergents make scum? O S + H C ( C H ) C N a 10 3 2 1 6 ─ O O Non-polar hydrocarbon chain Polar ionic group, soluble in water

  24. O Soluble! + H C ( C H ) C S N a 3 2 1 6 10 ─ O O Mg2+ O + H C ( C H ) C S N a 3 2 1 6 10 ─ O O

  25. Soap on the Web • Cator.hsc.edu/~kmd/caveman/projects/soap • History of soap making www.alcasoft.com/soapfact/history.html

  26. Topics for Today • From Soap to Biodiesel!! Review

  27. M. King Hubbert "Our ignorance is not so vast as our failure to use what we know." 1903 - 1989

  28. August, 2005: Chevron Full Page Magazine Adds It took us 125 years to use the first trillion barrels of oil. We’ll use the next trillion in 30. So why should you care? willyoujoinus.com

  29. Review Where does gasoline come from?

  30. Gasoline? Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Gasoline Kerosene and Diesel Fuel Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Solids (Paraffin, Asphalt, etc)

  31. Gasoline

  32. Diesel? Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Gasoline Kerosene and Diesel Fuel Heating Oil and Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Solids (Paraffin, Asphalt, etc)

  33. Diesel Fuel

  34. Rudolf Diesel Invented the diesel engine in 1892

  35. “The use of plant oil as fuel may seem insignificant today. But such products can in time become just as important as today’s kerosene and coal-tar-products” - Rudolph Diesel

  36. “The use of plant oil as fuel may seem insignificant today. But such products can in time become just as important as today’s kerosene and coal-tar-products” - Rudolph Diesel

  37. How do we use plant oil as a fuel? What is biodiesel? Biodiesel!

  38. Chemically speaking… • The (methyl) ester of a fatty acid! How is it different from a soap??

  39. Review - Soap • The soluble salt of a fatty acid!

  40. O C O- Na+ Soap – Salt of a fatty acid O C OCH3 Biodiesel – Methyl Ester of a fatty acid

  41. Where can we get the plant oils from?

  42. Biodiesel Feedstocks Canola Sunflower Linseed Safflower Corn oil Rapeseed Which is best? Soybeans

  43. Plants utilize photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Different plants produce usable oil at different rates. For Example: • Soybean: 40 to 50 US gal/acre (35 to 45,000 L/km²) • Rapeseed: 110 to 145 US gal/acre (100 to 130,000 L/km²) • Mustard: 140 US gal/acre (130,000 L/km²) • Jatropha: 175 US gal/acre (160,000 L/km²) • Palm oil: 650 US gal/acre (580,000 L/km²) • Algae: 10,000 to 20,000 US gal/acre (9,000,000 to 18,000,000 L/km²) Q? How much energy goes into growing and harvesting these feedstocks? Q? What are the fertilizer requirements for each of these feedstocks? http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/default.asp

  44. Making biodiesel – green refineries of the future? 100 g soybean oil 100.4 g biodiesel  + 10.9 g methanol    + 10.4 g glycerol 

  45. More than 50% of the fatty acids are linoleic acid! Soybeans

  46. How does this compare with diesel fuel? A polyunsaturated fatty acid C18H32O2

  47. Diesel Fuel

  48. Biodiesel products are similar to conventional petrodiesel Cetane (C16H34) An unbranched alkane (paraffin) PETERODIESEL COMPONENT Methyl Linolenate (C19H32O2) A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) BIODIESEL COMPONENT