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M21 : Assessment in the Workplace
‘to enable some kind of assessment to be made on an employee - either against pre-set objectives or job competencies… as a basis for…’
BUT, conditional on the extent to which -
Napier & Latham (1986) ‘Reluctance’
all leads to...
bias in appraisal ratings
‘Identify abilities that are central to good performance AND can discriminate between staff with varying levels of performance’.
How can we identify these job-related activities ?
1. Committee Method
Personnel and Snr Mgr/Exec. determine by discussion of ‘key’ abilities.
2. Diary Method
Job-holder keeps an hour-by-hour record
3. Direct Observation
HR and/or Occupational Psychologist observes job holder at work
4. Questionnaire Methods (e.g. Position Analysis Questionnaire) : 187 items, 6 dimensions
5. Interviews with job holders & stakeholders (e.g.Critical Incident Technique) : Incidents of ‘very effective’ and ‘very ineffective’ performance.
4 common formats for ratings scales :
1. Scales with verbally described intervals
2. Numerical/Alphabetical, with ‘low’-’high’ (intervals specified, but not described)
3. Graphic rating scales : extremes and mid-point specified, with detailed description of dimension of behaviour
4. Comparative scales : behaviour described relative to others.
6 - 12 months, detailing :
‘an underlying characteristic of a person which could be a motive, trait, skills, aspect of one’s self-image or social role or a body of knowledge which he/she uses.’ Boyatzis, 1982.
How to identify competencies :
(i) Traditional job analysis techniques, (ii) Rep Grid
(iii) Questionnaire methods (e.g. Generic Competency Questionnaire)
NB. Fletcher (1997). ‘competencies should not be equated with ratings of single job-related abilities - they are much more broader and complex. They should allow for progression and development’
N.B. train for appraisal of diverse workforce
‘a shared vision of the direction of the organisation, in which each individual employee recognises and accepts their contribution’
The Process of PM
Appraisal is the vehicle by which :
Merit Pay (PRP) :
3% -10% of salary (+ cost of living rises)
e.g. promotions, office décor, more holidays/flexible working practices, technology, ‘better’ work, conferences and training