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Root Locus Analysis (1). Hany Ferdinando Dept. of Electrical Eng. Petra Christian University. General Overview. This section discusses how to plot the Root Locus method Step by step procedure is used inline with an example Finally, some comments are given as the complement for this section.

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root locus analysis 1

Root Locus Analysis (1)

Hany Ferdinando

Dept. of Electrical Eng.

Petra Christian University

general overview
General Overview
  • This section discusses how to plot the Root Locus method
  • Step by step procedure is used inline with an example
  • Finally, some comments are given as the complement for this section
why root locus
Why Root Locus
  • Closed-loop poles’ location determine the stability of the system
  • Closed-loop poles’ location is influenced as the gain is varied
  • Root locus plot gives designer information how the gain variation influences the stability of the system
important notes
Important Notes:
  • Poles are drawn as ‘x’ while zeros are drawn as ‘o’
  • Gain at poles is zero, while gain at zeros is infinity
  • Pole is the starting point and it must finish at zero; therefore, for every pole there should be corresponding zero
  • Root locus is plot on the s plane
standardization

R(s)

C(s)

G(s)

+

-

H(s)

Standardization

1 + G(s)H(s) = 0

Find Characteristic Equation!!

how to make it
How to make it?
  • Start from the characteristic equation
  • Locate the poles and zeros on the s plane
  • Determine the root loci on the real axis
  • Determine the asymptotes of the root loci
  • Find the breakaway and break-in points
  • Determines the angle of departure (angle of arrival) from complex poles (zeros)
  • Find the points where the root loci may cross the imaginary axis
example 1
Example (1)

1. Start from the characteristic equation

example 2
Example (2)

2. Locate the poles and zeros on the s plane

example 3
Example (3)

3. Determine the root loci on the real axis

example 4a
Example (4a)

4. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci

example 4b
Example (4b)

4. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci

example 5
Example (5)

From the characteristic equation, find

then calculate…

s = -0.4266 and s = -1.5744

5. Find the breakaway and break-in point

example 6
Example (6)

This example has no complex poles and zeros, therefore, this step can be skipped!!!

qpole= 0 – sum from pole + sum from zero

qzero = 0 – sum from zero + sum from pole

6. Determine the angle from complex pole/zero

example 7
Example (7)

Do this part by substituting jw for all s in the characteristic equation

w = ±√2, K = 6 or w = 0, K = 0

7. Find the points where the root loci may cross the imaginary axis

comments
Comments
  • nth degree algebraic equation in s
  • If n-m≥2 then a1 is negative sum of the roots of the equation and is independent of K
    • It means if some roots move on the locus toward the left as K increased then the other roots must move towards the right as K is increased
root locus in matlab
Root Locus in Matlab

Function rlocus(num,den) draws the Root Locus of a system. Another version in state space is rlocus(A,B,C,D)

The characteristic equation

Those functions are for negative feedback (normal transfer function)

slide19
Next…

Topic for the next meeting is Root Locus in positive feedback