Kate Stroud 12.02.04 Puberty and the Development of Psychopathology in Adolescence
1. Definitions/Theory 2. Measurement Paradigm 3. Pubertal Timing 4. Psychopathology (pp) 5. Conclusions/Implications Outline
Historically, a period of “storm and stress” (Hall, 1904) Freud Adolescence does generate more “turmoil” than either childhood or adulthood Biological, psychological and social systems undergo marked changes Defining Adolescence
“An integrative discipline that seeks to unify, within a developmental, lifespan framework, contributions from multiple fields of inquiry with the goal of understanding pp and its relation to normal adaptation” (Cicchetti & Rogosch, 2000) It is not about studying disorders per se, but the full range of experiences from normal to abnormal DevelopmentalPsychopathology
Research must focus on how the pp is manifested in the context of the developmental capacities of the period Distal/proximal influences interacting dynamically Research must focus on how current functioning evolved (childhood) and on future developmental trajectories (adulthood) Focus is on normative processes and determining where problems may have arisen How can we apply this to adolescence?
Study the biological system (at many levels) in dynamic interplay with other systems Study the pre-pubertal period and the adult trajectories Possess knowledge of normative development How can we apply this to pubertal development?
Tanner Stages - primary and secondary sex characteristics Menarche Age More difficult for boys Measuring Puberty
Pubertal Status- level or stage of development at a certain point Pubertal Timing- the age of a pubertal event compared to most adolescents (on-time, early, late) Comparison groups: 1. within sample (timing classified according to sample) 2. outside groups (timing classified according to population) Measuring/Conceptualizing Pubertal Timing
Genes and shared environment - Farber (1981): MZ reared together > MZ reared apart > DZ together > DZ apart 2 types of stress: 1. physical (DELAYS) -malnutrition -disease -economic hardship 2. socioemotional (ACCELERATES) -family conflict (Moffit, 1992; Ellis & Graber, 2000) -father absence or step-father presence (Ellis et al., 1999) Antecedents of Timing
1. Stressful change hypothesis (Simons & Blyth, 1987) - change is stressful 2. Off-time hypothesis - events that occur earlier or later generate more distress 3. Early-timing hypothesis (Stattin & Magnusson, 1990) - events that occur earlier generate more distress 3 Hypotheses about puberty and pp
No, all share the assumption that puberty will generate behavioral differences. Instead, pre-existing differences are magnified and accentuated during periods of change. Thus, regardless of timing, puberty may not generate uniform reactions among adolescents, but accentuate pre-existing differences. (Caspi & Moffit, 1991) Do these hypotheses follow from the developmental pp framework?
Early maturing girls exhibited the most behavior problems at 13 and 15 Early maturing girls with a history of childhood behavior problems experienced the most problems Pre-existing differences were accentuated, not generated, by early maturation Caspi & Moffit (1991)
Early and late maturing boys show higher levels of depression Early maturing girls show the highest levels of depression throughout adolescence Depression
Puberty moves girls away and boys towards the cultural ideal (results in elevated body dissatisfaction for girls) Theoretically, early girls and late boys would be at the greatest risk Results are mixed (Stice, 2003) Body Image
Early maturing boys and girls show elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use and abuse Late maturing boys have lower rates of use/abuse than on-time boys Effects are stronger for cigarette abuse Substance Use/Abuse
Early and late maturing boys show significantly higher levels of delinquency and clinically diagnosed ADHD, CD, ODD Early maturing boys more likely to associate with deviant peers Early maturing boys more likely to engage in early sexual activity Antisocial Behavior (ASB): Boys
Early maturing girls show more ASB at 13 and 15 This is moderated by exposure to boys 2 pathways to ASB: 1. childhood history of externalizing problems 2. early maturation (Caspi et al., 1993) Antisocial behavior: Girls
Women (age 24): - Early maturers had higher lifetime prevalence rates of MDD, anxiety, disrupted behavior, and AS traits - No differences in current disorder - Early maturers showed deficits in psychosocial functioning (e.g. lower quality relationships, smaller social networks)(Graber et al., 2004) What About Adulthood?
Men ( age 24): - Late maturing men had elevated rates of lifetime history of disruptive behavioral disorders and higher rates of current substance use but not in adolescence - Early maturing men continued pattern of elevated substance use and poorer psychosocial functioning (Graber et al., 2004) What About Adulthood?
1. Most research is not prospective and longitudinal 2. Most research does not consider pre-adolescent behavior 3. Most research does not consider adult trajectories 4. Research findings may not generalize to non-Caucasian individuals (e.g. Stice, 2002) Limitations
What are we studying the development of? Despite inconsistencies, early maturing girls are at the highest risk for pp The experience of puberty probably accentuates early individual differences Many systems interacting dynamically contribute to pubertal timing and the development of pp Conclusions
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Reviewed by Heather Foran, Tom Olino, & Bianca Acevedo