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Kate Stroud 12.02.04. Puberty and the Development of Psychopathology in Adolescence. 1. Definitions/Theory 2. Measurement Paradigm 3. Pubertal Timing 4. Psychopathology (pp) 5. Conclusions/Implications. Outline. Historically, a period of “storm and stress” (Hall, 1904) Freud
Adolescence does generate more “turmoil” than either childhood or adulthood
Biological, psychological and social systems undergo marked changesDefining Adolescence
It is not about studying disorders per se, but the full range of experiences from normal to abnormalDevelopmentalPsychopathology
Distal/proximal influences interacting dynamically
Research must focus on how current functioning evolved (childhood) and on future developmental trajectories (adulthood)
Focus is on normative processes and determining where problems may have arisenHow can we apply this to adolescence?
Study the pre-pubertal period and the adult trajectories
Possess knowledge of normative developmentHow can we apply this to pubertal development?
Pubertal Timing- the age of a pubertal event compared to most adolescents (on-time, early, late)
1. within sample (timing classified according to sample)
2. outside groups (timing classified according to population)Measuring/Conceptualizing Pubertal Timing
- Farber (1981): MZ reared together > MZ reared apart > DZ together > DZ apart
2 types of stress:
1. physical (DELAYS)
2. socioemotional (ACCELERATES)
-family conflict (Moffit, 1992; Ellis & Graber, 2000)
-father absence or step-father presence (Ellis et al., 1999)Antecedents of Timing
- change is stressful
2. Off-time hypothesis
- events that occur earlier or later generate more distress
3. Early-timing hypothesis (Stattin & Magnusson, 1990)
- events that occur earlier generate more distress3 Hypotheses about puberty and pp
Instead, pre-existing differences are magnified and accentuated during periods of change.
Thus, regardless of timing, puberty may not generate uniform reactions among adolescents, but accentuate pre-existing differences. (Caspi & Moffit, 1991)Do these hypotheses follow from the developmental pp framework?
Early maturing girls with a history of childhood behavior problems experienced the most problems
Pre-existing differences were accentuated, not generated, by early maturationCaspi & Moffit (1991)
Early maturing girls show the highest levels of depression throughout adolescenceDepression
Theoretically, early girls and late boys would be at the greatest risk
Results are mixed
(Stice, 2003)Body Image
Late maturing boys have lower rates of use/abuse than on-time boys
Effects are stronger for cigarette abuseSubstance Use/Abuse
Early maturing boys more likely to associate with deviant peers
Early maturing boys more likely to engage in early sexual activityAntisocial Behavior (ASB): Boys
- Early maturers had higher lifetime prevalence rates of MDD, anxiety, disrupted behavior, and AS traits
- No differences in current disorder
- Early maturers showed deficits in psychosocial functioning (e.g. lower quality relationships, smaller social networks)(Graber et al., 2004)What About Adulthood?
- Late maturing men had elevated rates of lifetime history of disruptive behavioral disorders and higher rates of current substance use but not in adolescence
- Early maturing men continued pattern of elevated substance use and poorer psychosocial functioning (Graber et al., 2004)What About Adulthood?
2. Most research does not consider pre-adolescent behavior
3. Most research does not consider adult trajectories
4. Research findings may not generalize to non-Caucasian individuals (e.g. Stice, 2002)Limitations
Angold, A. & Rutter, M. (1992). Effects of age and pubertal status on depression in a large clinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 5-28.
Caspi, A., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T.E., & Silva, P.A. (1993). Unraveling girls’ delinquency: Biological, dispositional, and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehavior. Developmental Psychology, 29, 19-30.
Caspi, A. & Moffit, T.E. (1991). Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: The sample case of girls at puberty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 157-168.
Cicchetti, D. & Rogosch, F.A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 6-20.
Compian, L., Gowen, L.K., & Hayward, C. (2004). Peripubertal girls’ romantic and platonic involvement with boys: Associations with body image and depression symptoms. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 23-47.
Cyranowski, J.M., Frank, E., Young, E. & Shear, K. (2000). Adolescent onset of the gender difference in lifetime rates of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 21-27.
Ellis, B.J. & Garber, J. (2000). Psychosocial antecedents of variation in girls’ pubertal timing: Maternal Depression, Stepfather presence, and marital and family stress. Child Development, 71, 485-501.
Ge, X., Conger, R.D., & Elder, G.H. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 37, 404-417.
Ge, X., Conger, R.D., & Elder, G.H. (2001). The relation between puberty and psychological distress in adolescent boys. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 49-70.
Ge, X., Conger, R.D., & Elder, G.H. (1996). Coming of age too early: Pubertal influences on girls’ vulnerability to psychological distress. Child Development, 67, 3386-3400.
Graber, J. A., Seeley, J.R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Lewinsohn, P.M. (2004). Is pubertal timing associated with psychopathology in young adulthood? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 718-726.
Graber, J. A., Seeley, J.R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Lewinsohn, P.M. (1997). Is pubertal timing associated with psychopathology in young adulthood? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 1768-1777.
Hayward, C. & Sanborn, K. (2002). Puberty and the emergence of gender differences in psychopathology. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30S, 49-58.
Hayward, C. (1998). Gender differences at puberty. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Wiesner, M. & Ittel, A. (2002). Relations of pubertal timing and depressive symptoms to substance use in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 5-23.References
& Bianca Acevedo