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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

Socioemotional Development in Adolescence. Chapter 9. Search for Identity. Erickson Adolescents face crisis (identity v. role confusion) Key for progression to establishing relationships w/ others Experiment w/ different identities Advanced cognitive development key. Search for Identity.

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Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

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  1. Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Chapter 9

  2. Search for Identity • Erickson • Adolescents face crisis (identity v. role confusion) • Key for progression to establishing relationships w/ others • Experiment w/ different identities • Advanced cognitive development key

  3. Search for Identity • Marcia’s Identity Statuses • Diffusion - overwhelmed & no effort • Foreclosure - identity externally imposed • Moratorium - examining identities • Achievement - chosen identity • Not sequential • 15 year old: Diffusion, 21 year old: Achievement • MAMA - as adults can go back to moratorium & achievement

  4. Search for Identity • Adolescent thinking (decreases as approach identity) • Egocentrism • Know but don’t care about others views • Imaginary audience • Feel on stage all the time • Personal fable • Unique experiences • Invulnerability • No bad will befall ME

  5. Search for Identity • Factors impacting identity formation • Parents encourage discussion & exploration of alternative identities • Parent recognize child’s autonomy

  6. Self-Esteem • High in pre-school • Declines elementary years due to social comparison • Eventually stabilizes • Drops again during junior/high school • New peer groups to compare against

  7. Self-Esteem • Becomes more differentiated during adolescence • Recognize domain specific esteem • School, work, family, friends, etc. • Esteem varies independently across domains

  8. Self-Esteem • Factors impacting self-esteem • Parental style (authoritative best) • Consistent discipline • ‘I care about you’ • School (highest w/) • Hard work • Good peer relations/no conduct problems • Extracurricular activities • Nurturing environment

  9. Storm of Adolescence? • Largely a myth: most adolescents transition to adulthood w/o much trouble • Most adolescents • Admire & love parents • Rely on parents for advice • Embrace parents’ values • Feel loved by parents

  10. Parent-Child Bond • Changes during adolescence • More egalitarian • Growing autonomy of child • Spend less time w/ parents • Less affectionate towards parents • More conflict about style, taste, freedom

  11. Romantic Relationships • Children primarily relate to same-sex peers • Adolescence this changes • 5-10 hours/week of opposite sex interaction • 5-10 hours/week of thinking about opposite sex peers

  12. Romantic Relationships • Dating progression • Groups of boys & girls interacting • Several pairs of boys & girls • Individual couples • Cultural factors impact dating patterns • European: emphasize autonomy & date early • Hispanic/Asian: emphasize family & date later

  13. Sexual Behavior • 2/3 of high school graduates have had sex • Parents key: Less likely to have sex when • Teens feel close to their parents • Parents monitor their behavior • Parents discourage sex • Peers important as well: more likely when • Peers approve of sex • They believe their peers are having sex

  14. Sexual Behavior • Sexual behavior has different meaning for boys than for girls • Boys • 1st time w/ ‘causal date, viewed positively, & approved by peers • Sex more self-oriented, recreational activity • Girls • 1st time w/ someone they love, viewed negatively, disapproved by peers • Sex as an opportunity to form intimate connections

  15. Sexual Orientation • Sexual orientation part of broader search for identity • 15% adolescents report attraction to same sex peer • Most these are temporary/exploratory • 5% these reflect a gay/lesbian orientation • Most wait to ‘come out’ for fear of rejection

  16. Sexual Orientation • Many myths about cause of SO • Sons become gay with a domineering mother & weak father (NO) • Father as primary role model causes girls to become lesbian (NO) • Being raised by gay parents causes children to develop a gay SO (NO) • Gays, lesbians were sexually molested as children (NO)

  17. Sexual Orientation • What does cause SO? • Genetics (as heritable as IQ) • Prenatal hormones (masculinizing, feminizing impact on brain development) • Fraternal birth order effect • Each successive older brother increases change of son being gay • Mothers immune R to testosterone grows w/ each male birth

  18. Sexual Orientation • Homophobia: fear of gays, lesbians • Serious form of abuse affects many gay youth • Western culture holds very negative views about gays • Changing though • 1973 APA: homosexuality not disorder • Popular culture becoming more accepting (Ellen)

  19. Work • Career choice stages (Super) • Crystallization (13-14) • Emerging identities used to think about, pursue a career • Specification (18) • Learning about specific career and obtaining needed training • Implementation (early 20s) • Enter workforce and learn firsthand about the job

  20. Work • Personality-type theory • Select career that matches personality • 6 broad personality types • Realistic: physical labor, concrete problems • Mechanic, construction worker • Investigative: task oriented, abstract thinkers • Scientist • Artistic: expression via unstructured tasks • Poet, musician

  21. Part-Time Work • 75% US adolescents works (25% in 1970) • Fast foods, retail, manual labor • Benefits • Learn self-discipline, responsibility • Job skills

  22. Part-Time Work • Problems • School work suffers • Health, behavioral problems • Linked to drug use, delinquency, criminal behavior • Earn & spend strategy • Best if work < 10 hours/week at skill-based job

  23. Drug Use • Most adolescents avoid drugs • Except for alcohol (75% 12 graders) • Why do they drink? • Experimentation • Relaxation • Escape/cope w/ stress • Pleasure

  24. Drug Use • Factors predicting drinking • Parents: those who drink have kids who drink • Peers: peer pressure, modeling • Life stress • Treatment is possible • Stress management programs • School programs educating about dangers

  25. Depression • Pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability, and low self-esteem • 3%-10% of adolescents are depressed • Often begins with uncontrollable life stress • Developed learned helplessness in which they generalize feelings of helplessness & come to believe they cannot control what happens • Neurotransmitter malfunction (norepinephrine) enhances vulnerability

  26. Depression • Treatment • Drugs (e.g., Prozac) • Psychotherapy

  27. Suicide • 3rd most common cause of death in US adolescents • 10% attempt suicide • More common for boys than girls • More common for older than younger • More common among European than AA

  28. Suicide • Warning signs (seek help) • Threats of suicide • Death focus • Change in eating or sleeping • Loss of interest • Changes in personality • Feelings of gloom • Giving away valued possessions

  29. Delinquency • Performing illegal, antisocial acts • Status offenses (not crimes as adults) • Truancy, running away from home • Index offenses (crimes no matter the age) • Murder, robbery, GTA • ~50% GTA, robbery in US due to 15-20 year olds

  30. Delinquency • Causes • Life course: lifelong pattern of antisocial beh • SES • Family (ineffective parenting, abuse) • Self-control (impulsive) • Biology (aggressive, violent temperament) • Adolescent-limited: just during teen years • Search for identity, adult-like status via crimes

  31. Delinquency: Treatment • Teach self-control • Parenting classes • Family therapy • School programs • Reduce poverty

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