Pleural Effusion. Accumulation of fluid within the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura when there is an imbalance between formation and absorption in various disease states.
Pleural fluid cholesterol >60mg/dl
Serum albumin and pleural fluid albumin </= 1.2 mg/dl
After abdominal surgery
Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy
After liver transplant
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Drug-induced pleural disease
In decreasing order of incidence
Based on the decubitus films
Role of CT scan
Role of ultrasonography
Role of MRI
Indicated only if air is obtained during the procedure or if cough, pain or dyspnea develops.
Common causes include