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Leadership. Chapter 9. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002. 9.1. Chapter Overview. Formal and Informal Leadership. Leadership as a Managerial Role. Contingency Approaches to Leadership. Alternative Theories of Leadership.

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leadership

Leadership

Chapter 9

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.1

chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Formal and Informal Leadership
  • Leadership as a Managerial Role
  • Contingency Approaches to Leadership
  • Alternative Theories of Leadership

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.2

leadership3
Leadership

The ability to influence employees to go above and beyond mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization (Katz & Kahn, 1978)

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.3

types of leaders

Types of Leaders

  • Formal Leaders
    • ex: Vice President of an organization
  • Informal Leaders
    • ex: Group members recognized with a particular skill

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.4

leadership vs management
Leadership vs. Management

Managers

Leaders

EstablishingDirection

Creating an Agenda

Planning and Budgeting

Organizing and Staffing

Aligning People

Developing a human network for achieving the agenda

Motivating and Inspiring

Controlling and Problem Solving

Execution

Outcomes

Predictability and Order

Change

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.5

universal approaches to leadership

Universal Approaches to Leadership

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.6

transformational vs transactional leadership
Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership
  • Transformational - arouses intense feelings and generates turbulent one-to-one relationships with followers
  • Transactional - motivates followers by exchanging rewards for services

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.7

the transformational leader
The Transformational Leader
  • Raises the level of follower awareness, consciousness, and commitment to designated outcomes as well as knowledge of how to achieve these outcomes
  • Encourages followers to transcend their self-interests for the sake of the organization
  • Alters the followers’ needs or expands their wants

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.8

the transactional leader
The Transactional Leader
  • Recognizes what subordinates want from their work and attempts to get it--when performance warrants
  • Exchanges rewards and promises of rewards for subordinates’ efforts
  • Is responsive to subordinates’ immediate self-interests--if they get the job done

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.9

charismatic leadership
Charismatic Leadership

Transformational leaders use their leadership abilities to develop a common vision of what could be, to discover or create opportunities, and to strengthen organizational members’ control of their destinies

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.10

the managerial grid
The Managerial Grid

Concern for People

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1,9 Country Club Management

9,9 Team Management

5,5 Organization Person Mgmt.

1,1 Impoverished Management

9,1 Authority Management

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Concern for Production

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.11

contingency approaches to leadership

Contingency Approaches to Leadership

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.12

contingency model
Contingency Model

The effectiveness of a leader’s behavior is determined by the nature of the situation with which which he or she is confronted

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.13

least preferred coworker lpc scale

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale

Measures two styles of behavior:

Task oriented and relationship oriented

Score High:

Emphasize completing tasks; even at the expense of relationships

Score Low:

Derive satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment from relationships

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.14

path goal theory
Path-Goal Theory

Leader Achievement-Orientedness

Leader Directiveness

Leader Participativeness

Leader Supportiveness

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.15

situational leadership model
Situational Leadership Model

Leaders are effective when they use the most appropriate leadership style for the situation they face

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.16

alternative theories of leadership

Alternative Theories of Leadership

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.17

leader member exchange model
Leader-Member Exchange Model

LMX focuses on the differential patterns of interaction between leaders and subordinates

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.18

attribution model of leadership
Attribution Model of Leadership

Perceived source of responsibility

  • Information cues
  • Distinctiveness
  • Consistency
  • Consensus

Leader behavior in response to attributions: Reprimand Transfer Demotion Personal concern Training

  • Observation of
  • poor quality:
  • Rejects
  • Excess scrap
  • Returned
  • products
  • Excessive costs

Causal attribution of poor quality: Low effort Low commitment Lack of ability Improper equipment Unfair deadlines Illnesses

#1

#2

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.19

substitutes for leadership
Substitutes for Leadership

Neutralizers

Substitutes

Vision

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publisher, Copyright 2002

9.20