K-ToBI Labeling Conventions Sun-Ah Jun, Linguistics, UCLAVersion 3.1, November 2000 http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/jun/ktobi/K-tobi.htmlPresented by Kyuchul Yoon (Division of English, Kyungnam University)The 2007 Winter Workshop of the Circle of Experimental Phonetics
Background • Korean Tones and Break Indices • A prosodic transcription convention for standard (Seoul) Korean • Based on English ToBI and Japanese ToBI system • Assumes intonational phonology (e.g., Pierrehumbert 1980, Beckman & Pierrehumbert 1986, Pierrehumbert & Beckman 1988) • Intonational analysis and prosodic model of Seoul Korean based on Jun (1990, 1993, 1996, 1998; also see Lee 1989 and de Jong 1989 for earlier studies). • A first version of K-ToBI was developed in late 1994 by Mary Beckman and Sun-Ah Jun
Intonational Structure (Seoul) • Two intonationally defined prosodic units: Intonation Phrase (IP) and Accentual Phrase (AP) • IP : marked by a boundary tone (%) (& final lengthening).AP : marked by a phrasal tone (THLH), but not by final lengthening • The boundary tone is realized in the IP final syllable.At least nine boundary tones identified (L%, H%, LH%, HL%, LHL%, HLH%, HLHL%, LHLH%, LHLHL%)
Structure of K-ToBI • English ToBI has four parallel tiers(1) word, (2) tone, (3) break-index, and (4) miscellaneous, but allows the free proliferation of site-specific extra tiers, e.g. a phones tier for phonetic segmentation • Current version of K-ToBI expands a tone tier into two :A phonological tone tier: underlying tones A phonetic tone tier : surface tonal patterns
Structure of K-ToBI • Minimally, a K-ToBI transcription for an utterance consists of,(A) a recording of the speech, an associated record of (B) the fundamental frequency contour,and the following five parallel tiers: (1) word (2) phonological tone (3) phonetic tone (4) break-index (5) miscellaneous
Tiers • Word • Phonological tone • Phonetic tone • AP final tones • AP initial tones • IP final boundary tones • Break index • Miscellaneous
Word tier • Site-specific needs • Words may be labeled using either Hangul or romanization • ‘Word’ as a sequence of segments divided by a space in a written Hangul text • The word label should be placed at the end of the final segment in the word (waveform or spectrogram).That is, each word should be marked at its right edge • Filled pauses, etc. should also be labeled using some site specific convention for the Hangul or romanized spelling
Phonological tone tier • Mark (1) the boundary tone of an IP and(2) the boundary tone of an IP-medial AP • Since the AP boundary tone in an IP-final position is overridden by an IP-final boundary tone, only IP final boundary tone (%) will be labeled at the end of an IP • To mark the end of an AP, Use ‘LHa’ as a short term for LHLHa or HHLHa • To mark the end of an IP, Use one of the nine different boundary tones
Phonological tone tier • LHamarks the end of an IP-medial AP, aligned with the end of AP final segment. The LHa tone should be placed at or just before the corresponding break index marker regardless of the actual location of the peak. • T%marks the end of an IP, aligned with the end of IP final segment. ‘T’ can be H, L, HL, LH, HLH, LHL, HLHL, LHLH or LHLHL. A T% tone should be placed at or just before the corresponding break index marker regardless of the actual location of the peak.
Phonetic tone tier • Mark the surface realization of AP tones and IP tones • AP tones: 3 initial tones (i.e. L and H on the 1st syllable, and +H on the 2nd, sometimes the 3rd when the AP is long and focused) 3 final tones (i.e. La and Ha on the final syllable, and L+ on the penult of an AP) • When an AP has 3 syllables, the tone on the 2nd syllable can be either L (ex. LLH) or H (ex. LHH). LLH: parsed as L-LH with the undershoot of the 1st H of LHLH, i.e. L L+ HaLHH:parsed as LH-H with the undershoot of the 2nd L of LHLH, i.e. L +H Ha
Phonetic tone tier • AP final tones:HaThe most common AP final tone of an IP-medial AP. Either the end of a rising tone or a high flat tone. Aligned with an actual f0 peak on the AP final syllable.LaA less common AP final tone, sometimes seen when the following AP begins with a H tone. Aligned with an actual f0 valley on the AP final syllable.L+ Low toned penultimate syllable of an AP. Do not label this tone if predictable, e.g. H (L+) La, L (L+) La. Aligned with an actual f0 valley on the penult of an AP. When only a low plateau, place it at the beginning of the low plateau when preceded by an initial H, or at the end of the plateau when followed by a final H.
Phonetic tone tier • AP initial tones:LOn the first syllable of an AP. Aligned with the f0 valley on the first syllable of an AP.HOn the first syllable of an AP. Aligned with the f0 peak on the first syllable of an AP.(avoid the first pitch point at the vowel beginning which is most likely due to the segmental perturbation)+HOn the second syllable of an AP.(or sometimes the third syllable when the AP is long or uttered fast or produced under focus) Aligned with the f0 peak on the second syllable. When the peak continues over the following syllable, place it aligned with the latest f0 peak of the phrase initial peak.
Phonetic tone tier Vertical line represents the beginning of the IP-final syllable.
Phonetic tone tier • Boundary tone placement:f0 maximum: H%, LH%, HLH%, LHLH%f0 minimum: L%, HL%, LHL%, HLHL%, LHLHL% • Complex boundary tones: HL%, HLH%, LHLH%, LHLHL%Put ‘>’ at the f0 peak of the non-final H tone. • IP type:Determined by the f0 shape of the IP-final syllable* H tone of HL% is sometimes realized on the penultimate syllable of an IP: Old/Middle Korean of dramas, movies, etc.
Phonetic tone tier • IP final boundary tones:L%A level ending, or a gently falling tone over much of the IP-final AP. The most common tone in stating facts, and in declaratives in reading. Placed phrase-finally, aligned with f0 minimum.H%A rising tone beginning to rise before the IP-final syllable, and reaches its peak during the final syllable. The most common tone in seeking information as in yes/no questions. The rise is earlier than that in LH%. Placed phrase-finally, aligned with f0 maximum.LH%A rising tone that is more localized than H%, rising sharply well within the final syllable. Common for questions, continuation rises, and explanatory ending. Placed phrase-finally, aligned with f0 maximum.
Phonetic tone tier • IP final boundary tones:HL%A falling tone that rises to a peak before the last syllable, and then falls during the last syllable. Common in declaratives and wh-questions. Common in news broadcasting. Placed phrase-finally, aligned with f0 minimum. H marked by ‘>’ aligned with the f0 peak.LHL%, HLH%, LHLH%, HLHL%, LHLHL%
Break index tier • The degree of juncture perceived between each pair of words and between the final word and the silence at the end of the utterance. • Marked after all words that have been transcribed in the word tier. • All junctures -- including those after fragments and filled pauses -- must be assigned an explicit break index value.
Break index tier • 0For cases of clear phonetic marks of “clitic” groups; e.g. application of vowel coalescence rules. Also for cases of ‘incomplete nouns’; e.g. <su, de, geos>1For phrase-internal “word” boundaries which are not marked by such cliticization phenomena and can be pronounced by itself.2For cases of a minimal phrasal disjuncture, with no strong subjective sense of pause -- that is, a sense of phrase edge of the type that is typically associated with the tonal pattern at the right edge of the AP.3For cases of a strong phrasal disjuncture, with a strong subjective sense of pause (whether it be an objective visible pause or only the “virtual pause” cued by final lengthening) -- that is, a sense of phrase break of the type that is typically associated with the tonal pattern at the right edge of an IP.
Break index tier • In case of mismatch btw/ tonal markings and break indices, the break index number should follow the perceived juncture rather than the tones.1mA disjuncture that typically would correspond to a phrase-medial word boundary, but is marked by the tonal pattern of an AP.2mA medium strength disjuncture that typically would be marked by the tonal pattern of an AP, but without any tonal markings, or with those of an IP.3mA highest strength disjuncture that typically would be marked by the tonal pattern of an IP, but with the tonal markings of an AP.# -Break uncertain between # and #-1 level#pPause or disfluency after this level of juncture
Miscellaneous tier • For any comments or markings, aligned with both their temporal beginnings and ends.<laughter>, <silence>, <audible breath>, <disfluency>
그랬어요? 그랬어요? 그랬어요? 그랬어요?
오늘 저녁에 누가 먹어요? 바람과 햇님이 두번째
나는 영아를 미워해요 영만이네는 영아를 미워해요
영이어머니는 영아를 미워해요 형민이네는 영아를 미워해요
동기부여의 두 형태 중에서, 성장하고 있는 것이 살아있는 것이다
나는 실력있는 집안의 가정교사를 만났다 일반적인 것은 완전화
아주머니가 언제 만들어요? 즉, 산호는 살아있으며 암석은 죽어있는 것이다
이것은 우리들 마음의 세계에도 해당된다 그러나, 같은 현미경에 산호 조각을 놓고 보면,
딱 지키고 있는 사람이 누군고하니 젊은 총각 앤쏘니 파킨슨이다
요즘 그런 교회가 이천년이 밀레니엄이 이제 내년부터 시작이 되구,