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  1. TOBI, continued September 23, 2014

  2. The Master Plan • Any questions on the DSP exercise? • Today--some lecture notes on: • Multiple pitch accents within a phrase • “Downstepping” • Finally: • Work on the transcription of some new TOBI exercise files. • https://webdisk.ucalgary.ca/~swinters/public_html/ling441/TOBIlab2.html

  3. TOBI, so far • English has pitch accents, which align with stressed syllables in an utterance. • We’ve seen two pitch accents: • H* : peak in F0 • L* : trough in F0 • English also has boundary tones, which align with the ends of intonational phrases. • There are also two of these: • H% • L% • Boundary tones are not associated with a particular syllable.

  4. Phrases • Intonation organizes utterances into phrases • “chunks” • Boundary tones mark the end of intonational phrases • Intonational phrases are the largest phrases • In the transcription of intonation, phrase boundaries are marked with Break Indices • Hence, TOBI: Tones and Break Indices • Break Indices are denoted by numbers • 1 = break between words • 4 = break between intonational phrases

  5. Break Index Transcription Tones: L* H% Breaks: 1 1 1 4

  6. Information • Note that there’s a tendency to accent new information in the discourse. • 4 different patterns for 4 different contexts: • H* • H*: Manny came with Anna. • H* • H*: Manny came with Anna. • L* • L*: Manny came with Anna? • L* • L*: Manny came with Anna?

  7. Question Formation • Note that not all questions end in L* H%. • What’s the intonational difference between these two? • Did you see Bob? • L*H% • Where did you go? • H* L% • The upsloping intonation only applies to yes/no questions. • Also note: “Uptalk” • = application of L* H% pattern to declarative sentences.

  8. 0 Level Boundaries • 0 level boundaries are marked wherever there is clear coarticulation across a word boundary • Also for flaps across word boundaries, as in “got it” 0 1 1 4

  9. There Can Be More Than One • Important: there can be more than one pitch accent within an intonational phrase. • Check out the peach file. H* L* H* L%

  10. Downstepping • Successive H* accents tend to drift downward in F0 within an intonational phrase. • = downdrift, or downstepping • This provides further evidence for phrasal organization. • Note: this is an optional process. • Downstepped H* accents are denoted with a !H* • Anna gave Manny a mango. • H* !H* !H* L% • There’s a lovely, yellowish, old one. • H* !H* !H* L%

  11. Downstepping Pitch Track H* !H* !H* L% =271 Hz =238 Hz =200 Hz