Animals are consumers! What does it mean to be a consumer? Organisms that cannot make their own food and need to go out and find food that they can ingest and digest
How do consumers find their food? They use their senses! Smell-Giant pandasusually live alone, but they can use their keen sense of smell to find each other in thick bamboo forests.Komodo dragons’keen sense of smell helps these lizards to zero in on rotting meat from more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) away.
Hearing-Many nocturnal animals rely on their sense of hearing to function in a dark world. Prey animals, such asrabbits,listen for predators trying to sneak up on them. Predators, such as owls, can hunt in total darkness just by listening for prey.Rabbits must be able to "sense" danger, and their sharp ears allow them to detect a predator before they are in danger.
Touch-How about using your sense of touch to find dinner? Thewalrus pokes around in the muddy ocean bottom with its whiskers to feel for a crab or a clam. Then, it uses its tusks to dig up the food. Animals that live underground (such as moles) do not need a well-developed sense of sight, but do have sharp senses of smell and touch (whiskers) to help them find their way around and search for food.
Sight-Hawksand other birds of prey have a keen sense of sight, so they can detect movement of animals such as mice while soaring high above the ground. Did you ever wonder how a hawk can detect a tiny mouse while soaring high above the tree line?
One way that animals are classified by whether they have a backbone or not There are two main groups 1. Invertebrates- No backbone, make up 96% of all animals, are considered the “lower” group-not very complex. 2. Vertebrates- Have backbones, make up 4% of all animals, are considered the “higher” group- more complex
Ho w do animals digest their food? 1. Some animals have a complete digestive system (frogs, humans)Food is broken down mechanically and chemically as it passes through different parts of a specialized body tube. 2. Some animals do not have a complete digestive system and use other methods (sponge filters their food) or a (starfish pushes its stomach out to grab food)
Invertebrates Mollusks Worms Arthropods Insects
Vertebrates Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals
Animals can also be classified by their skeletons. There are 3 types of skeletons, the two we will learn about are 1. Exoskeleton- animals that have an outer covering for protection (usually invertebrates) 2. Endoskeleton- animals that have skeletons on the inside of their bodies. (usually vertebrates)
Exoskeleton -Effective against dehydration -Combines strength and flexibility -Unable to be repaired -Limited space for contraction -Cannot enlarge -Must be shed which makes animal vulnerable
Endoskeleton -Strong support against gravity -Does not protect muscles -Heavy -May be flexible or strong
Body Structure/Plans A body plan is the animal’s symmetry 1. Radial symmetry- no apparent left, right, front or back. (hydra) 2. Bilateral symmetry- distinct left and right sides (butterfly) 3. Asymmetrical- no symmetry (sponges)
Scientists look at how animals reproduce in order to further classify them. There are two types of reproduction 1. Sexual- Separate male and female individuals, fertilization occurs, 2. Asexual- A new organism is formed from just one parent, no fertilization, happens mostly with invertebrates
What are two types of fertilization? 1. External- 1 or more new individuals formed that are like their parents, dependent on water to carry out fertilization (fish, frogs, starfish) 2. Internal- Females eggs are kept in body, smaller number of individuals produced, do not depend on water (humans, dogs, tigers, cows) -Budding -Regeneration
Development of a fertilized egg into an adult varies in the animal world. 1. Young that look very similar to the adult form- changes not very dramatic (kittens, dogs, babies) 2. Young that look nothing like their parents- changes are dramatic -Complete metamorphosis (Butterfly) -Incomplete metamorphosis (Grasshopper)
Adaptations: Characteristics that allow an animal to survive in its environment. These characteristics allow the animal to find food, protect themselves, communicate, and mate.
Physical Adaptations: Changes to the animals body Blubber, Bird Beaks Camouflage,Thumbs, Jaw structure, Eyes
Blubber Polar bears, whales, seals, and other arctic animals have a layer of fat under their skin that keeps their heat in when it is cold, especially when they dive into water that’s just about 0 degrees Celsius. Blubber may be up to 15 cm (6 in.) thick. During the winter, blubber may account for one-third of an animals total body mass. Blubber also streamlines the body and functions as an excess energy reserve.
Why do some animals in cold water have fur instead of only blubber? Some marine mammals (such as seals, sea lions, and otters) use thick hair as an insulator, while others use blubber. Hair works by trapping air between the body and the cold water, and air is a very good insulator.
Bird Beaks Nectar Hummingbirds suck out nectar Robins dig and pull out worms Sparrows and Finches crack open seeds Heron scoop out fish
Ducks, Geese, Swans carefully scoop out fine bits of vegetation Swallows catch flying insects with wide openings Woodpeckers pick and pry out small insects in tiny crevices. Owls and Hawks pull meat off of bones
Chisel-Woodpeckers have bills that are long and chisel-like for boring into wood to eat insects. Cracker-Seed eaters like sparrows and cardinals have short, thick conical bills for cracking seed.
Probe-Hummingbird bills are long and slender for probing flowers for nectar. Shredder-Birds of prey like hawks and owls have sharp, curved bills for tearing meat.
Spear-Birds like herons and kingfishers have spear-like bills adapted for fishing. Strainer-Some ducks have long, flat bills that strain small plants and animals from the water.
Swiss Army Knife-Crows have a multi-purpose bill that allows them to eat fruit, seeds, insects, fish, and other animals. Tweeter-Insect eaters like warblers have thin, pointed bills.
Camouflage Many animals that live in snowy areas are white (like the polar bear), Many animals that live on rocks match the coloration of the rocks, and Many animals that live near the soil are soil-colored. Patterns, like stripes or spots, can also help camouflage an animal.
Many animals that live in deserts are sand-colored (like the Fennec fox), Many animals that live in trees are green (like the emerald tree boa),
A few animals are shaped like twigs (the walking stick), leaves (the Australian leaf wing butterfly), or even bird droppings (the caterpillars of many butterflies, including the viceroy and the red-spotted purple butterfly). Some animals are not naturally camouflaged, but are helped out by other organisms (for example, the sloth lets green algae grow on its fur, helping hide the sloth among the tree leaves).
Snake Jaws Snakes, however, have an additional bone on each side of their mouths. These bones are called quadrates, are long and movable, allowing snakes to "unhinge" their jaws. Additionally, the lower jaw of the snake is not one solid bone like ours is. It is really two separate bones connected by a ligament that can stretch from side to side.
What would happen to a snake if its jaws broke? Can snakes tear their food apart? Snakes must be able to swallow their food whole if they are to survive.
Other types of adaptations: Internal- Respiration Breathing- Lungs, Gills, Openings in the side of an insects body Behavioral Mating Protective
Types of Communication adaptations: Mother penguin trying to find babies Cat raising it’s tail