The Wonderful Animal Kingdom Animals are consumers! What does it mean to be a consumer? Organisms that cannot make their own food and need to go out and find food that they can ingest and digest How do consumers find their food? They use their senses!
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Organisms that cannot make their own food and need to go out and find food that they can ingest and digest
They use their senses!
Smell-Giant pandasusually live alone, but they can use their keen sense of smell to find each other in thick bamboo forests.Komodo dragons’keen sense of smell helps these lizards to zero in on rotting meat from more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) away.
There are two main groups
1. Invertebrates- No backbone, make up 96% of all animals, are considered the “lower” group-not very complex.
2. Vertebrates- Have backbones, make up 4% of all animals, are considered the “higher” group- more complex
1. Some animals have a complete digestive system (frogs, humans)Food is broken down mechanically and chemically as it passes through different parts of a specialized body tube.
2. Some animals do not have a complete digestive system and use other methods (sponge filters their food) or a (starfish pushes its stomach out to grab food)
1. Exoskeleton- animals that have an outer covering for protection (usually invertebrates)
2. Endoskeleton- animals that have skeletons on the inside of their bodies. (usually vertebrates)
-Effective against dehydration
-Combines strength and flexibility
-Unable to be repaired
-Limited space for contraction
-Must be shed which makes animal vulnerable
-Strong support against gravity
-Does not protect muscles
-May be flexible or strong
A body plan is the animal’s symmetry
1. Radial symmetry- no apparent left, right, front or back. (hydra)
2. Bilateral symmetry- distinct left and right sides (butterfly)
3. Asymmetrical- no symmetry (sponges)
There are two types of reproduction
1. Sexual- Separate male and female individuals, fertilization occurs,
2. Asexual- A new organism is formed from just one parent, no fertilization, happens mostly with invertebrates
1. External- 1 or more new individuals formed that are like their parents, dependent on water to carry out fertilization (fish, frogs, starfish)
2. Internal- Females eggs are kept in body, smaller number of individuals produced, do not depend on water (humans, dogs, tigers, cows)
1. Young that look very similar to the adult form- changes not very dramatic (kittens, dogs, babies)
2. Young that look nothing like their parents- changes are dramatic
-Complete metamorphosis (Butterfly)
-Incomplete metamorphosis (Grasshopper)
Characteristics that allow an animal to survive in its environment. These characteristics allow the animal to find food, protect themselves, communicate, and mate.
Blubber, Bird Beaks
Jaw structure, Eyes
Polar bears, whales, seals, and other arctic animals have a layer of fat under their skin that keeps their heat in when it is cold, especially when they dive into water that’s just about 0 degrees Celsius. Blubber may be up to 15 cm (6 in.) thick. During the winter, blubber may account for one-third of an animals total body mass. Blubber also streamlines the body and functions as an excess energy reserve.
Some marine mammals (such as seals, sea lions, and otters) use thick hair as an insulator, while others use blubber. Hair works by trapping air between the body and the cold water, and air is a very good insulator.
Nectar Hummingbirds suck out nectar
Robins dig and pull out worms
Sparrows and Finches crack open seeds
Heron scoop out fish
Swallows catch flying insects with wide openings
Woodpeckers pick and pry out small insects in tiny crevices.
Owls and Hawks pull meat off of bones
Cracker-Seed eaters like sparrows and cardinals have short, thick conical bills for cracking seed.
Shredder-Birds of prey like hawks and owls have sharp, curved bills for tearing meat.
Strainer-Some ducks have long, flat bills that strain small plants and animals from the water.
Tweeter-Insect eaters like warblers have thin, pointed bills.
Many animals that live in snowy areas are white (like the polar bear),
Many animals that live on rocks match the coloration of the rocks, and
Many animals that live near the soil are soil-colored. Patterns, like stripes or spots, can also help camouflage an animal.
Many animals that live in trees are green (like the emerald tree boa),
Some animals are not naturally camouflaged, but are helped out by other organisms (for example, the sloth lets green algae grow on its fur, helping hide the sloth among the tree leaves).
Snakes, however, have an additional bone on each side of their mouths. These bones are called quadrates, are long and movable, allowing snakes to "unhinge" their jaws. Additionally, the lower jaw of the snake is not one solid bone like ours is. It is really two separate bones connected by a ligament that can stretch from side to side.
Snakes must be able to swallow their food whole if they are to survive.
Breathing- Lungs, Gills, Openings in the side of an insects body
Mother penguin trying to find babies
Cat raising it’s tail