lithosphere glaciated uplands 03 09 2010 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lithosphere: Glaciated Uplands 03/09/2010 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Lithosphere: Glaciated Uplands 03/09/2010

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 36

Lithosphere: Glaciated Uplands 03/09/2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 122 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lithosphere: Glaciated Uplands 03/09/2010. Deposition 2. Drumlins.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Lithosphere: Glaciated Uplands 03/09/2010' - patricia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
drumlins
Drumlins
  • Description: Oval hills made mostly of till (ground moraine). May be 100 metres to several kilometres long, and up to 100 metres high. Have a rounded stoss side and a tapering lee side (the opposite of roche moutonnées). Often occur in groups called swarms - known as basket of eggs topography.
  • Explanation: Most probably caused by an advancing glacier reshaping existing ground moraine into a streamlined hill, often with a large rock outcrop at its heart.
fluvioglacial deposits
FLUVIOGLACIAL DEPOSITS

These deposits are different from till (glacial deposits)

because the material is sorted and layered.

Heaviest material is deposited 1st

The material is also more rounded and comprises of mainly sand

and gravels.

eskers
Eskers
  • Description: Long, sinuous (twisting) ridges of mostly sand and gravel. An esker is a fluvio-glacial deposit. May be several kilometres long and up to 100 metres high.
  • Explanation: Eskers are the beds of rivers which once flowed on, in or, most commonly, under a glacier (sub-glacial streams). When the glacier melted, these temporary river beds were left on the surface of the ground, but now without the rivers which formed them.
eskers1
ESKERS

Made of sorted sands and gravels

Long, narrow and winding

Formed during deglaciation when material carried in subglacial

streams began to be deposited

KAMES

Small, mound shaped hillocks

Made of sand and gravel

Laid down by glacial streams

Tend to be found in areas with kettle hole lakes

slide11

Glacial streams are found under the ice-sheet.They are loaded with debris (sand and gravel) carried by the meltwater.As the ice-sheet retreats, the river deposits its load.

esker

slide12

glacier

river flowing under ice depositing sand and gravel

An esker is a steep-sided, long, winding ridge, made up of gravel and sand.

esker

outwash plain
OUTWASH PLAIN

Gently sloping area of land beyond the terminal morraine

Made up of sands and gravels

Meltwater transports and deposits material which has been

collected and eroded by the glacier

KETTLE HOLE LAKES

Formed when a large piece of ice breaks off from retreating

glacier

The ice slowly thaws, if the depression is below the water table

a kettle loch forms

slide15

sorted sands

and gravels

spread out

to form

outwash plain

glacier

meltwater

Infertile outwash often

covered by bog or forest

outwash plain

slide16

kettle

depression filled with water to form kettle lake

depression formed when ice melts

block of ice

outwash sand

and gravel

slide17

MOULINS

  • Holes in glaciers that water flows through.
  • Connect surface streams to subsurface streams.

Sediment deposition

forms kames

slide20

SUB-GLACIAL STREAMS

Deposition in these tunnels forms eskers

slide25

A Scottish example, showing the sand and gravel interior. Eskers are often quarried to provide sand and gravel for building.

slide26

Note the fine, sandy texture of this esker – very different from the unsorted, angular material in moraines.

slide27

Identify the features shown on the diagram by matching

the numbers to the names given.

Esker; Terminal Moraine; Till (Ground Moraine/Boulder Clay); Outwash Plain; Drumlin; Kettle; Outwash Sands and Gravels.

slide28

1 is a Terminal Moraine. A hummocky ridge of unsorted stones, boulders and clays dumped by the glacier at the furthest point it reached

2 is a Drumlin. A long, rounded mound of till, moulded under the flowing ice. Its narrower end points in the direction that the ice was moving. They usually occur in groups (swarms)

3 is a Kettle. A water filled hollow left when a block of ice in the till or outwash melted to leave a hollow

4 is an Esker. A long, winding ridge of sands and gravels left by a stream which ran in an ice tunnel under the melting glacier

slide29

5 is Till (Ground Moraine or Boulder Clay). A mixture of broken rocks and clay plastered over the bedrock under the base of the glacier

6 is an Outwash Plain. A nearly flat expanse of sorted sands and gravels washed out of the glacier and carried beyond the terminal moraine

7 is Outwash sands and gravels. The meltwaters washed these away from the glacier, rounding off angular stones and depositing them in layers.

slide30

Landforms of

glacial

erosion

Landforms of

glacial

deposition

Landforms of

fluvioglacial

deposition

Glacial deposition

=

unsorted deposits

=

boulder clay

fluvioglacial

deposition

=

sorted deposits

=

sands and

gravels

crag and tail

moraine

erratic

drumlin

esker

kettle

outwash plain

activities
ACTIVITIES

HUMAN ACTIVITY IN GLACIATED LANDSCAPES

Discussion:

Land uses? What are the pros and cons of these areas?

Read p. 106  108

Think about:

Farming

Forestry

Communications

Settlement

Industry

Leisure and Recreation

activities1
ACTIVITIES

OS MAP AND CAIRNGORM

Use the map of Cairngorm on page 92

Work through questions 1  6 on page 142

HOMEWORK: (Wednesday to Wednesday)

Choose any 2 features of glacial erosion and with the aid of

diagrams explain their formation 5 marks

Choose any 2 features of glacial deposition and with the aid of

diagrams explain their formation 5 marks

slide33

Ablation

Abrasion

Alluvial fan

Alpine glacier

Arête

Boulder clay

Cirque

Continental glacier

Corrie

Corrie lochan

Crag & tail

Crevasse

Cwm

Drumlin

melting and evaporation of glacial ice at its snout

sand-papering effect that smoothes and polishes rocks

fan shaped deposit of silt when a river flows on to a plain

valley glacier

sharp, knife-edged ridgebetween two corries

ground moraine

armchair shaped hollow at the head of a glacial valley

ice sheet

cirque

tarn

steep rock face with a gentle slope of boulder clay

deep vertical crack formed in ice

cirque

elongated mound of ground moraine

slide34

End moraine

Erratic

Esker

Fiord

Firn

Fluvio-glacial

Freeze-thaw

Frost shattering

Glacial deposition

Glacial erosion

Glacial ice

Glacial transportation

Glacial trough

Glacier

Ground moraine

terminal moraine

rock transported by ice and deposited on a different rock surface

winding ridge of sand and gravel

glacial trough drowned by a rise in sea level

granular ice

formed by meltwater flowing in or off a glacier

weathering of rock by expansion of water in cracks when it freezes

freeze-thaw

sediment left behind when a glacier melts

wearing away of rocks by abrasion and plucking

ice formed when snow is compressed

movement of materials by glacial flow

glaciated U-shaped valley with steep sides and a flat bottom

mass of ice which flows by gravity

material deposited at the base of a glacier

slide35

Hanging valley

Headwall

Ice sheet

Horn

Kettle

Lateral moraine

Medial moraine

Meltwater

Misfit river

Moraine

Névé

Outwash plain

Plucking

Pyramidal peak

valley above the level of the main valley often with a waterfall

steep back wall of a cirque

mass of ice not limited to a valley

pyramidal peak

small shallow lake on an outwash plain formed by blocks of ice melting.

moraine deposited along the sides of a valley glacier

moraine formed when two alpine glaciers flow together

rivers formed by melting ice

winding river flowing in a valley it did not form

angular, unsorted waste material transported by a glacier

firn

sorted deposits of sands and gravels spread by meltwater

erosional process - meltwater freezes into cracks and pulls out loose rock

sharp, pointed peak formed by glacial action

slide36

long, narrow lake in a glacial trough

sharp, angular material produced by frost shattering

fiord

area of permanent snow found above the snowline

end of a glacier

scratches on the bedrock made by moraine carried in a glacier

small circular lake in a cirque

moraine ridge deposited at the snout of a glacier

ground moraine

interlocking spur that has been cut-off by glacial erosion

glacial trough

glacier confined to a valley

Ribbon lake

Scree

Sea loch

Snowfield

Snout

Striations

Tarn

Terminal moraine

Till

Truncated spur

U-shaped valley

Valley glacier