‘If you want to sell to fish, don’t use skywriting… ..they can’t read.’. Audience Analysis. Identify & understand target audience(s) Use findings to select media, messages, etc. Audience Analysis.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
‘If you want to sell to fish, don’t use skywriting… ..they can’t read.’ Audience Analysis Identify & understand target audience(s) Use findings to select media, messages, etc.
Audience Analysis Use formal, informal research to create profile of target audiences. Research is systematic gathering of information… ..primary research and secondary research.
Do audience research to… • Make sense of > audience fragmentation • Keep from losing touch w/ stakeholders (!) • Confirm or disprove assumptions • Confirm if complaints are widespread • Prevent unintended effects • Guide strategy, messages, media--use $$ wisely
Ask: • Who do we want to reach? • What do we want them to do? • What messages do we want to communicate to each public that will: • Encourage desired behavior • Increase knowledge • Change attitudes • Maintain relationships
Audience AnalysisGather info to learn public’s interests, needs, concerns, beliefs, behaviors. Segmentation: Identify, prioritize, profile 1. What segments or subgroups exist? Most important? 2. Create clear, complete picture of typical member of each. Consider: • Demographics • Psychographics • Sociographics • Behaviors (general) • Communication Behaviors • Issues Publics
Demographics Census-type categories: Age Language Family Size Gender Marital Status Political Party Race/ethnicity Income Religion Education Level Geographic Location Ownership Occupation Mobility et cetera
Psychographics Personality, Attitudinal and Lifestyle Variables: Focus on hopes, fears, interests, beliefs, values Generational research VALS research
Sociographics Behavior variables among groups: Covert Power (children, receptionist…) Position (classified/unclassified, mgmt…) Reputation (influencers, critics, loyalists…) Org Membership (church, PRSA, OSU…) Role in Decision Process
Behaviors Who is using, not using, might use your services? Examine and track: Purchasing patterns Attendance history et cetera
Communication behaviors Identify publics based on communication. Where do these people get their news & info? dentify publics based on their relation to the issue: Who is aware of the problem? Who cares about it? Determine activity of publics via (Grunig & Hunt, 1984) Problem Recognition (awareness) Constraint Recognition (agency) Level of Involvement (identity, etc.)
i.e. Types of Issues Publics Grunig &Hunt (1984) Active on all relevant issues Apathetic on all relevant issues Active only on issues if they involve most people in group Active only on a single issue Grunig (1998) Long-haul types (deep interest in topic, ramifications) Special interest types (concerned about certain parts of topic) Hot-button types (interested in what sparks emotional debate)
Q: Who?A: Research.Who is aware of ‘it’? What do they know?What are their attitudes about ‘it’? Who already does ‘it’?What motivates them to do it? What prevents them from doing ‘it’? Where do they get news &info about ‘it’?DO I Know all I can about the WHO I’m trying to reach?
Informal research methods • Personal contacts • Professional contacts, experts, opinion leaders • Advisory committees, boards • Field reports • Community forums/group meetings • Telephone calls, mail, email (call logs, etc.) • Library research (existing surveys, etc.) • Internet research (databases, Google trends, etc.) • Clip files, media tracking, blog monitoring • Real-time responses to media messages and survey questions • In-depth interviews • Panel studies • Q methodology
More formal types of research • In-depth interviews • Focus groups • Observation/ethnography • Scientific survey • Co-orientation research • Content analysis • Gap research • Force-field analysis • Communication audit • Reputation audit
Questions to guide research decisions: • What do we already know? • What are the gaps in knowledge? • What other research exists that might be helpful? • What will we do with this research? • What special constraints need be considered?
More specifically… • What information are you seeking? • How will information be used? • What is best research method for this job? Consider: Resources Levels of expertise Access Existing data Time Need for precision, depth Budget (8-10%) Size of sample, universe Data Collection Questions
Know pros & cons: Method Advantage Disadvantage Focus groups fast, interactive expensive, cannot generalize Phone survey fast to administer cost, need prof. phone bank Mail survey responder convenience slow to complete Online survey fast, lower cost may be difficult to generalize Content analysis low cost, insight in comm labor intensive, value ltd. Comm audit overall assessment costly, labor intensive Depth interviews complex probes expensive, slow, quality? Phone interviews quicker interview expensive, access, quality? Observation easily, quickly accessible limited use, low int. reliability Internet research directly answers ?s discern for accuracy, quality
Learn more… Scads of books, databases & online resources!
Then apply it! Audience analysis research should guide PR planning, including media selection…
+Media Analysis In media relations,”Whoam I trying to reach?” always involves the two-step flow of the media process. So ALWAYS consider BOTH audience types in your analysis and strategy: 1. The consumers/citizens you’re trying to reach AND 2. The media gatekeepers (editors, reporters, etc.) through which you’ll try to reach them. You must identify, prioritize and profile BOTH. You must analyze and fully understand both: Audience Analysis and Media Analysis.
Media Relations Identify targeted media by: 1) Media type (TV, radio, newspaper, magazine, online, etc.) 2) Uncontrolled or controlled (internal or external) 3) Geograpy (local, state, regional, national, international) 4) Beat system (business, arts & entertainment, health, nonprofit & edu…) 5) Audience (consumer or trade) 6) Size & scope (metropolitan daily, community weekly, monthly niche pub) 7) Specialized topics (Family Living, Senior Living, Akron Women, Feast…) Which are primary targets, secondary targets, etc.?
Media Relations Learn about, create a profile of targeted media. Find out: When does it come out or air? How frequently? What are the deadlines for submitting news? What is the circulation number and area? Who are its readers or viewers? Is there an online version? What is the editorial calendar for the year? Who are the editors/reporters? Who covers your beat(s)? What type of news do they run? What have they run lately on X? When’s the last time they covered Y? Does it appear as if it accepts bylined articles? What special sections or shows exist each day of the week? (e.g. IdeaStream, Food Section on Wed, Technology on Mon, Entertainment on Thur…) What routinized publicity opportunities exist, what are deadlines and submission procedures? (e.g. Promotions/awards, community calendar, arts/entertainment listings, business news briefs…) Who are the columnists, and what do they cover? What is the format of their editorial section and op-ed? Any opportunities here to keep in mind?
Media Relations Create a Media List (organized, scan-able, user-friendly) Media Organization name address phone fax e-mail Web site, blogs, etc. deadline notes Journalist name, title, phone, fax, e-mail, Web site, blogs, etc. preferred mode of contact, other notes
Media Relations Ongoing Media Research Maintain log of interactions by media or campaign. Add info gleaned. Keep file on key journalists; read what they write, how they write. Keep detailed notes; they’ll help you later on with pitching and relationship-building. Etc.
Media Relations “All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of society. We can vulgarize that society. We can brutalize it. Or we can help lift it onto a higher level.” William Bernbach (American advertising executive, 1911-1982)