The Carbohydrates. Sugars Starches Fiber. Objectives. After reading Chapter 3 and class discussion, you will be able to: Describe the functions of CHO Identify the classification of CHO Describe CHO digestion & absorption Identify food sources of CHO Calculate calories from CHO.
Plants make their own carbohydrates from
carbon dioxide in air
water from the soil
Photosynthesis converts energy from sunlight into energy stored in carbohydrates
Added (Refined) sugars
Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
Amylose - straight glucose chain
Amylopectin – branched glucose chain
Found only in plant foods: grains, legumes, vegetables, some fruits.
Gelatinization – When starches are heated, they absorb water and swell in size.
Primary source of body’s energy
Central nervous system and red blood cells rely almost exclusively on glucose.
Glucose stored in liver & muscles as glycogen.
Prevents breakdown of protein for energy (gluconeogenesis)
Prevents ketone bodies & ketosis
Breakdown of fat for energy
Refers to both the Glycemic Index and the total amount of carbohydrate contained in the food
Factors Influencing Glycemic Index
Effect of mixed meal
Fat, fiber, protein content of food
Amount and type of CHO eating
Sugars added to a food for sweetening or other purposes
Do not include natural sugars
Food for yeast
White sugar (sucrose)
High-fructose corn syrup or corn syrup
RDA for carbohydrate
45% - 65% total daily energy intake
Daily Value: 300 g/day; 60% of 2000 kcal diet
Daily Value: 25 gm/day
AI: 14 gm/1000 kcal/day
1 apple 1 c. applesauce 1 c. apple juice