the carbohydrates l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Carbohydrates PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Carbohydrates

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 74

The Carbohydrates - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Carbohydrates. Sugars Starches Fiber. Objectives. After reading Chapter 3 and class discussion, you will be able to: Describe the functions of CHO Identify the classification of CHO Describe CHO digestion & absorption Identify food sources of CHO Calculate calories from CHO.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Carbohydrates' - parson


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the carbohydrates

The Carbohydrates

Sugars

Starches

Fiber

objectives
Objectives
  • After reading Chapter 3 and class discussion, you will be able to:
    • Describe the functions of CHO
    • Identify the classification of CHO
    • Describe CHO digestion & absorption
    • Identify food sources of CHO
    • Calculate calories from CHO
objectives3
Objectives
  • Differentiate between soluble and insoluble fiber
  • Identify foods that are a significant source of fiber
  • Discuss health related effects of CHO in
    • Diabetes -Heart Disease
    • Obesity -GI -Cancer
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

Plants make their own carbohydrates from

carbon dioxide in air

water from the soil

Photosynthesis converts energy from sunlight into energy stored in carbohydrates

4

categories of carbohydrate
Categories of Carbohydrate

Simple carbohydrates

Natural sugars

Added (Refined) sugars

Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)

Starch

Fiber

5

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Simple carbohydrates
    • Monosacchares
    • Disaccharides
  • Complex carbohydrates
    • Glycogen
    • Starches
    • Fibers
disaccharides
Disaccharides
  • Maltose
    • Glucose + glucose
    • Starch breakdown; fermentation
    • Barley
  • Sucrose
    • Glucose + fructose
    • Table sugar from sugarcane, sugar beet
  • Lactose
    • Gucose + galactose
    • Milk
complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides
    • Glycogen
      • Storage form of glucose
      • Stored in liver and muscles
    • Starches
      • Long chains of glucose linked together
      • Straight or branched chains
    • Fibers
      • Soluble or viscous
      • Insoluble or nonviscous
complex carbohydrate starch
Complex Carbohydrate: Starch

Amylose - straight glucose chain

Amylopectin – branched glucose chain

Found only in plant foods: grains, legumes, vegetables, some fruits.

Gelatinization – When starches are heated, they absorb water and swell in size.

13

complex carbohydrates14
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Fibers
    • Cellulose
    • Hemicelluloses
    • Pectins
    • Legnin
    • Gums and muscilages
    • Resistant starches

p. 108-109

complex carbohydrates15
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Fibers
    • Soluble fibers-dissolve in water
      • Viscous-form gels
      • Fermentable-digested in colon by bacteria
complex carbohydrates16
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Fibers
    • Insoluble fibers
      • Nonviscous
      • Fermented less readily
  • Phytic acid-binds minerals
carbohydrate categories
Carbohydrate Categories
  • Sugars
  • Starches
  • Fibers

OR

  • Simple
  • Complex
carbohydrate categories19
Carbohydrate Categories
  • Monosaccharide
    • Glucose -Fructose -Galactose
  • Disaccharide
    • Maltose -Sucrose -Lactose
  • Polysaccharide
    • Glycogen -Starches -Fibers
functions of carbohydrate
Functions of Carbohydrate

Primary source of body’s energy

Central nervous system and red blood cells rely almost exclusively on glucose.

Glucose stored in liver & muscles as glycogen.

Protein sparing

Prevents breakdown of protein for energy (gluconeogenesis)

Prevents ketone bodies & ketosis

Breakdown of fat for energy

20

digestion
Digestion
  • Mouth
    • Salivary amylase
    • Mechanical mixing; chewing
  • Stomach
    • Continued mixing of bolus
    • Fibers and satiety
  • Small intestine
    • Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase
digestion22
Digestion
  • Pancreas
    • Pancreatic amylase
  • Large intestine – Colon
    • Fermentation of viscous fibers
      • Water, gas, short-chain fatty-acid

production

carbohydrates and health
Carbohydrates and Health
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Diabetes
  • Dental caries
  • Constipation
  • Hyperactivity
  • Obesity
  • Heart Disease
lactose intolerance
Lactose Intolerance
  • Symptoms
    • Abdominal discomfort
    • Bloating; Intestinal gas formation
    • Diarrhea
  • Causes
    • Primary: Lactase deficiency
    • Secondary: Mucosal damage

p. 110

lactose intolerance28
Lactose Intolerance
  • Prevalence (p. 111)
  • Ethnic <10% to >80%
    • <10% Northern Europeans (Scandinavians)
    • 20% Caucasians
    • 50% Hispanics
    • 60% Inuits
    • 70% Mediterranean peoples
    • 75% African Americans
    • 80% Native Americans
    • >80% Southeast Asians
lactose content of food
Lactose Content of Food
  • Whole wheat bread 1 slice 0.5gm
  • Cheese 1 oz 0.5-0.8
    • Cheddar/American
    • Parmesan/Cream
  • Doughnut, cake type 1.2
  • Chocolate 1 oz 2.3
  • Sherbet 1 c 4.0
  • Cottage cheese 7.5
  • Ice Cream 1 c 9.0
  • Milk 1 c 12.0
  • Yogurt 1 c 15.0
lactose intolerance30
Lactose Intolerance
  • Dietary changes
    • May not require the elimination of milk/milk products
    • Acidophilus milk
    • Kefir, yogurt
    • Adequate calcium intake
    • Conservative vs liberal approach
blood glucose
Blood Glucose
  • Regulating hormones
    • Insulin
      • Controls transport of glucose
    • Glucagon
      • Release glycogen from liver stores
    • Epinephrine
      • Signals liver to release glucose

p. 104

slide33
How the

body

regulates

blood

glucose

p. 114

blood glucose34
Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemia
    • Rare in healthy people
  • Diabetes
    • Type 1 diabetes
      • Failure of insulin production
    • Type 2 diabetes
      • Obesity
blood glucose35
Blood Glucose
  • Glycemic response
    • How quickly and how high blood sugar rises after eating
  • Glycemic index
    • Method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose

p. 118

blood glucose36
Blood Glucose

Glycemic Load

Refers to both the Glycemic Index and the total amount of carbohydrate contained in the food

Factors Influencing Glycemic Index

Effect of mixed meal

Fat, fiber, protein content of food

Amount and type of CHO eating

CAUTION

added sugars
Added Sugars

Sugars added to a food for sweetening or other purposes

Do not include natural sugars

Other purposes:

Prevent spoilage

Browning

Food for yeast

Hold moisture

p. 100-102

examples of added sugars
Examples of Added Sugars

White sugar (sucrose)

High-fructose corn syrup or corn syrup

Invert sugar

Brown sugar

Molasses

Honey

Powdered sugar

Raw sugar

Demerara sugar

38

sugars
Sugars
  • Nutrient density
  • Overused in

USA

p. 101

sugars42
Sugars
  • Health effects of sugars
    • Dental caries
      • Dental plaque

p. 102

controversies of sugar
Controversies Of Sugar
  • Sugar causes obesity
  • Sugar causes heart disease

p. 104

controversies of sugar44
Controversies Of Sugar
  • Sugar causes misbehavior in children and criminal behavior in adults
  • Sugar causes cravings and addictions
    • Serotonin- mood elevator

p. 105

recommended intakes of sugars
Recommended Intakes of Sugars
  • DRI
    • No more than 25% of total daily energy intake
      • Average U.S. Intake=105#/yr
          • 30 teaspoons/day
starch and fiber
Starch and Fiber
  • Health effects
    • Heart disease
    • Diabetes
    • GI health
    • Cancer
    • Weight management
viscous fibers
Viscous Fibers
  • SOLUBLE and more fermentable
  • Gums and mucilages
  • Pectins
  • Psyllium
  • Some hemicelluloses
viscous fibers48
Viscous Fibers
  • Sources
    • Whole-grains, fruits, legumes, seeds and husks, vegetables
viscous fibers49
Viscous Fibers
  • Lower blood cholesterol
  • Slow glucose absorption
  • Slow transit of food through upper GI tract
  • Holds moisture in stools, softening them
viscous fibers50
Viscous Fibers
  • Yield small fat molecules that the colon can use for energy
  • Lower risk of heart disease
  • Lower risk of diabetes
nonviscous fibers
Nonviscous Fibers
  • INSOLUBLE and less fermentable
  • Cellulose
  • Lignins
  • Psyllium
  • Resistant starch
  • Many hemicelluloses
nonviscous fibers53
Nonviscous Fibers
  • Sources
    • Brown rice, fruits, legumes, seeds, vegetables, wheat bran, whole grains
    • Extracted and used as food additives
nonviscous fibers54
Nonviscous Fibers
  • Increase fecal weight
  • Speed fecal passage through colon
  • Provide bulk and feelings of fullness
nonviscous fibers55
Nonviscous Fibers
  • Alleviate constipation
  • Lower risks of diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, appendicitis
  • May help with weight management
starch and fiber57
Starch and Fiber
  • RDA for carbohydrate
    • 130 g/day
    • 45% - 65% total daily energy intake
  • Daily Value: 300 g/day; 60% of 2000 kcal diet
  • Fiber
starch and fiber58
Starch and Fiber

RDA for carbohydrate

130 g/day

45% - 65% total daily energy intake

Daily Value: 300 g/day; 60% of 2000 kcal diet

Fiber

Daily Value: 25 gm/day

AI: 14 gm/1000 kcal/day

fiber
Grains

Whole Wheat or

100% Wheat vs

Wheat Bread

Fiber
more on fiber
More on Fiber
  • Vegetables
    • ½ c. dry beans, carrots=5-7 gms
    • ½ c. corn=2 gm; 1c. tomatoes=2 gm
    • ½ c. broccoli=3-6 gm
  • Fruits
    • 1 pear=4-6 gm; canned=4 gm/1c
    • 1 apple=3-5
    • 1 banana, orange=3
fiber and food processing
Fiber and Food Processing
  • How much fiber is there in each food?

1 apple 1 c. applesauce 1 c. apple juice

alternatives to sugar
Alternatives to Sugar
  • Artificial sweeteners & sugar replacers (nutritive sweeteners)
  • Stevia-natural, herbal alternative
  • Guidelines for Use:
    • More sweet than sugar; use less
    • FDA approved (p.134; H4-1;H4-3 )
    • Caution when used in cooking
alternatives to sugar68
Alternatives to Sugar
  • Caution: Patients with PKU
  • Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)

p. 135-138

objectives71
Objectives
  • After reading Chapter 3 and class discussion, you will be able to:
    • Describe the functions of CHO
    • Identify the classification of CHO
    • Describe CHO digestion & absorption
    • Identify food sources of CHO
    • Calculate calories from CHO
objectives72
Objectives
  • Differentiate between soluble and insoluble fiber
  • Identify foods that are a significant source of fiber
  • Discuss health related effects of CHO in
    • Diabetes -Heart Disease
    • Obesity -GI -Cancer