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CARBOHYDRATES

CARBOHYDRATES. Graham, Jack, Richard, Tony, WIngshun. Functions. Main purposes: energy, storage, structure provides energy  50-80% of energy used by body is drawn from carbs energy not immediately used and stored as glycogen (a polysaccharide carb) for future use

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CARBOHYDRATES

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  1. CARBOHYDRATES Graham, Jack, Richard, Tony, WIngshun

  2. Functions • Main purposes: energy,storage, structure • provides energy  50-80% of energy used by body is drawn from carbs • energy not immediately used and stored as glycogen (a polysaccharide carb) for future use • helps oxidise fat  w/o carbs, body can’t get energy from fat, which provides double the amount of energy • spares protein from being used for energy, so it can be used to build/repair tissues • aids digestion • helps make up cell & tissue structures • source of carbon for synthesis of other compounds

  3. Monomer • The smallest unit that makes up a carbohydrate is a • MONOSACCHARIDE • Monos = single • Sacchar = sugar

  4. Empirical Formula • Empirical formula of carbohydrate is • Cm(H20)n

  5. Monosaccharides, Disaccharides & Polysaccharides • Monosaccharides: carbohydrates with a small # of carbon atoms (3-7) • Aka simple sugars • ex. fructose & glucose

  6. Disaccharides: made of 2 monosaccharides joined together with a glycosidic linkage • Ex. maltose  formed from 2 glucoses • sucrose  formed from a glucose & fructose • Glycosidic linkage: covalent bond between 2 simple sugars from a dehydration reaction • Polysaccharides: made of many monosaccharides chained together (so they’re polymers) • Ex. starch & glycogen

  7. Starch • is a storage polysaccharide made of glucose in plants • is stored energy from which glucose can be withdrawn by hydrolysis to be used as a nutrient • stored by plants in plastids • bond angles make it helical shaped

  8. GLYCOGEN • glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of glucose in animals • Stored mostly in liver & muscles) • extensively branched\ • when animals need sugar, glycogen undergoes hydrolysis to release glucose

  9. CELLULOSE • cellulose is an indigestible (for most organisms) type of polysaccharide • makes up the structure of plant cell walls • different glycosidic linkages in starch & cellulose makes the shape of the molecules slightly different • straight and not branched

  10. Works Cited • Ashiya. "5 Most Essential Functions of Carbohydrates." Preserve Articles. PreserveArticles.com, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.preservearticles.com/201105146671/5-most-essential-functions-of- carbohydrates.html>. • Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. "The Structure and Function of Macromolecules." Biology. Sixth ed. N.p.: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. 64-68. Print. • "Carbohydrates." SparkNotes. SparkNotes LLC, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sparknotes.com/health/carbohydrates/section1.rhtml>. • Tom. "Carbohydrates !" AP Biology 2007 (Period 1&2). Blogger, 12 Nov. 2007. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://apbio12007.blogspot.ca/2007/11/carbohydrates.html>.

  11. IMAGES • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Starchy-foods..jpg • http://www.everydiet.org/995/types-of-carbohydrates • http://www.understanding-horse-nutrition.com/carbohydrates.html • http://www2.ustboniface.ca/cusb/abernier/Biologie/Chimie/structurefonctionmacromol.htm • http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/carbos.htm • http://www.edinformatics.com/interactive_molecules/a_b_glucose_differences.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glykogen.svg • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cellulose_Sessel.svg

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