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CARBOHYDRATES. Graham, Jack, Richard, Tony, WIngshun. Functions. Main purposes: energy, storage, structure provides energy  50-80% of energy used by body is drawn from carbs energy not immediately used and stored as glycogen (a polysaccharide carb) for future use

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carbohydrates

CARBOHYDRATES

Graham, Jack, Richard, Tony, WIngshun

functions
Functions
  • Main purposes: energy,storage, structure
  • provides energy  50-80% of energy used by body is drawn from carbs
    • energy not immediately used and stored as glycogen (a polysaccharide carb) for future use
    • helps oxidise fat  w/o carbs, body can’t get energy from fat, which provides double the amount of energy
  • spares protein from being used for energy, so it can be used to build/repair tissues
  • aids digestion
  • helps make up cell & tissue structures
  • source of carbon for synthesis of other compounds
monomer
Monomer
  • The smallest unit that makes up a carbohydrate is a
  • MONOSACCHARIDE
  • Monos = single
  • Sacchar = sugar
empirical formula
Empirical Formula
  • Empirical formula of carbohydrate is
  • Cm(H20)n
monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides & Polysaccharides
  • Monosaccharides: carbohydrates with a small # of carbon atoms (3-7)
    • Aka simple sugars
    • ex. fructose & glucose
slide6
Disaccharides: made of 2 monosaccharides joined together with a glycosidic linkage
    • Ex. maltose  formed from 2 glucoses
  • sucrose  formed from a glucose & fructose
  • Glycosidic linkage: covalent bond between 2 simple sugars from a dehydration reaction
  • Polysaccharides: made of many monosaccharides chained together (so they’re polymers)
    • Ex. starch & glycogen
starch
Starch
  • is a storage polysaccharide made of glucose in plants
  • is stored energy from which glucose can be withdrawn by hydrolysis to be used as a nutrient
  • stored by plants in plastids
  • bond angles make it helical shaped
glycogen
GLYCOGEN
  • glycogen is the storage polysaccharide of glucose in animals
  • Stored mostly in liver & muscles)
  • extensively branched\
  • when animals need sugar, glycogen undergoes hydrolysis to release glucose
cellulose
CELLULOSE
  • cellulose is an indigestible (for most organisms) type of polysaccharide
    • makes up the structure of plant cell walls
    • different glycosidic linkages in starch & cellulose makes the shape of the molecules slightly different
    • straight and not branched
works cited
Works Cited
  • Ashiya. "5 Most Essential Functions of Carbohydrates." Preserve Articles. PreserveArticles.com, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.preservearticles.com/201105146671/5-most-essential-functions-of- carbohydrates.html>.
  • Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. "The Structure and Function of Macromolecules." Biology. Sixth ed. N.p.: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. 64-68. Print.
  • "Carbohydrates." SparkNotes. SparkNotes LLC, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sparknotes.com/health/carbohydrates/section1.rhtml>.
  • Tom. "Carbohydrates !" AP Biology 2007 (Period 1&2). Blogger, 12 Nov. 2007. Web. 26 Sept. 2012. <http://apbio12007.blogspot.ca/2007/11/carbohydrates.html>.
images
IMAGES
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Starchy-foods..jpg
  • http://www.everydiet.org/995/types-of-carbohydrates
  • http://www.understanding-horse-nutrition.com/carbohydrates.html
  • http://www2.ustboniface.ca/cusb/abernier/Biologie/Chimie/structurefonctionmacromol.htm
  • http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/biochem/carbos.htm
  • http://www.edinformatics.com/interactive_molecules/a_b_glucose_differences.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glykogen.svg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cellulose_Sessel.svg