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Carbohydrates. By: Clay Bowes (leader), Joey Cristee (Vocabulary), Sam Mohr (Elements), Nick Alcock (Monomers), Olivia Roudebush (Polymers), Clare Corr (Use in organisms). Vocabulary. Monosaccharide- Single sugar molecules Polysaccharides- large macromolecules

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  1. Carbohydrates By: Clay Bowes (leader), Joey Cristee (Vocabulary), Sam Mohr (Elements), Nick Alcock (Monomers), Olivia Roudebush (Polymers), Clare Corr (Use in organisms)

  2. Vocabulary • Monosaccharide- Single sugar molecules • Polysaccharides- large macromolecules • Glycogen- Polysaccharide that stores excess sugar; for animals • Starches- complex extra sugar carbohydrate; for plants • Cellulose- used to store excess sugar in plants; for structure (desks-slabs) wood

  3. Elements • Made of Carbon Contains Oxygen • Contains Hydrogen

  4. Monomer • The Monomer of Carbohydrates are monosaccharaides • It is simple sugars like glucose(basic) and fructose (fruits and plants), galactose (milk sugar)

  5. Polymers • Known as polysaccharides • Starches and sugars • Arranged in long chains Common Starch Cellulose

  6. Uses Carbohydrates in Organisms • Plants and Animals uses carbohydrates as a source of energy. • They are also used to store access sugar • These are called Glycogen • structure

  7. Summary Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are based in a 1:2:1 ratio. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for living things. Also, Carbohydrates can be used for structural purposes. There are two types of carbs: sugars and starches. Sugars are not good for long-term energy but are good for short bursts of energy. Starches can be stored for long-term use. Sugars and starches have the same monomers. These monomers are called monosaccharides. There are three types of sugars: glucose, galactose, and fructose. Starches have many monosaccharides called polysaccharides. There are animal starches and plant starches; the animal starches are called glycogen and the plant starches are called cellulose. Glycogen is responsible for movement and cellulose is responsible for plant rigidity and strength. Carbohydrates in short, are the source for energy as well as the way to store energy.

  8. Proteins By: Emma, Gina, Kristi, Kate, Thomas, and Ryan

  9. Vocabulary Proteins – Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Amino Acids – Compounds with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end. R-Groups– The portion of each amino acid that is different and is a side chain.

  10. Elements • Hydrogen • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Carbon

  11. Monomer • Amino Acids are monomer’s of proteins

  12. Proteins/polymers • ● Proteins are polymers of amino acids lined by • covalent bonds • ● Serve lots of functions • ○ Catalysts (enzymes), structural roles • (cytoskeleton), take ions and molecules across • membranes, hormones.

  13. Proteins in organisms • Different types of proteins do different things • Needed for tissue growth and repair • Your body needs protein

  14. Nucleic Acids By: Halle, Lily, Jackie, lexi, courtney, evan , AND CHARLIE.

  15. Summary • The nucleic acids are the building blocks of living organisms. You may have heard of DNA described the same way. DNA is just one type of nucleic acid. Some other types are RNA, mRNA, and tRNA. All of these "Na's" work together to help cells replicate and build proteins. They are actually made up chains of base pairs stretching from only a few to millions. When those pairs combine in super long chains (DNA), they make a shape called a double helix. There are five easy parts of nucleic acids. The five pieces are Uracil, Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, and Guanine.

  16. Elements Found • Carbon • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Hydrogen • Phosphorous

  17. Monomer • Nucleotide is the monomer

  18. Polymer • DNA and RNA

  19. Uses • Stores and transmits genetic information

  20. Vocabulary • Nucleic Acids- Macromolecules containing Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous. • Nucleotides- consists of three parts: a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. • Ribonucleic Acid- RNA • Deoxyribonucleic acid-DNA • Protein: class of organic compounds which are present in and vital to every living cell • Polymer: a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units • Monomer: an atom or a small molecule that may bind chemically to other monomers to form a polymer.

  21. Lipids By: Nick Nagy, Lexi Lewis, DJ Estrada, AJ Krok, Shelby Goble, and Terry Winston

  22. Where Do We Find Lipids? • Lipids are fats, oils, and waxes • Some examples are olive oil and butter

  23. Saturated Fats —Saturated fats are when they contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms —Ex. butter Unsaturated Fats —Formed when there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond —If there is more then one of those double bonds then it is polyunsaturated —Tend to ne liquid at room temperature —Ex: Olive Oil contain unsaturated fatty acids Fats

  24. Vocabulary • Lipids- Group of molecules. Usually not soluble in water. 

  25. Elements Mostly • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen

  26. Uses Of A Lipid • Stores energy •  Structure and cell membrane •  Hormones/Cell signals

  27. Monomer of a Lipid Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids make up the monomer of a lipid. These make up the structure for a lipid.

  28. Polymer of Lipids Lipids are not considered Polymers as they do not have consist of repeating units.

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