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Nationalism and Fascism. The Extreme Right. Think like a Fascist Gradations of Humans: Who is Fully Human?. eu·gen·ics [ yoo-jen-iks ]

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Nationalism and fascism

Nationalism and Fascism

The Extreme Right

Think like a fascist gradations of humans who is fully human
Think like a FascistGradations of Humans: Who is Fully Human?

  • eu·gen·ics[yoo-jen-iks]

  • noun ( used with a singular verb ) the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by such means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics).

Nationalism healthy and unhealthy
Nationalism: Healthy and Unhealthy

  • Now a dirty word, but it does not have to be.

  • Healthy nationalism is possible

  • Unhealthy nationalism appears to be the norm

Healthy nationalism 19 th century romanticism
Healthy Nationalism: 19th Century Romanticism

  • Johann Fichte (1762 – 1814)

  • Johann Herder (1744 – 1803)

  • G.W.F. Hegel (1770 – 1831)

    These Romantic writers defined nation in terms of common language, common history, common customs, and a loyalty to a homeland. This cultural nationalism would later become transformed into a political creed that ideologically asserted the unique spirit of belonging together, and the corporate nature of the polity where individuals worked together as a cultural unit and constituted a force capable of changing world history.

    The volkgeist – embodies the national spirit, food, dress, language

19 th century the e ra of national awakenings
19th Century: The Era of National Awakenings

  • German and Italian unifications

  • Also, the 19th century saw the emergence of the contemporary nation-state, the political consolidation of one (or more) nations under the jurisdiction and administration of a single state.

    • Greece

    • Serbia

    • Romania

      This process has continued into the 20th and 21st centuries.

Unhealthy nationalism totalitarian nationalism fascism nazism
Unhealthy Nationalism:Totalitarian Nationalism = Fascism/Nazism

  • Fasces (a bundle of rods tied to an axe) = symbolized the unity of a nation served by an administrative state

  • Components of this belief system are covered in the slides below. Make a list of what Fascism is based on these slides and Know them for your test.

What is fascism
What is Fascism?

  • Fascism believes in the superiority of the nation. “The nation” refers to a collection of people bound together by race, ethnicity, or culture. Germans and Italians are examples of nations. The way to achieve national superiority is through the state. The ultimate goal of the major fascist regimes that have existed, like the regimes of the Italian Fascist Party and the German Nazi Party, was to pursue national greatness. Mussolini intended to “guide the material and moral progress of the [Italian] community.” Hitler planned to return the German nation to its position as “the culture-founder of this earth.” Hitler and Mussolini wanted to place the nation above all other bases of loyalty, including class relations and religion.

Fascism is
Fascism is . . .

  • Intensely nationalistic with deep pride in past cultural achievements and the cultural superiority over other nations.

    Nationalism is the key to all the other components of this ideology.

Fascism is1
Fascism is . . .

  • Anti-Marxist

  • Why?

    • Marxism is an internationalist ideology based on equality of all. It is also an anti-imperialist ideology whereas Fascism is imperialist in essence. Plus a lot of Jews were Marxists (like Karl Marx for example and Trotsky).

Not democratic because
Not-Democratic because . . .

  • The type of state needed to fulfill this goal is anti-democratic and totalitarian. Such a state is anti-democratic because it eliminates democratic institutions, like the electoral, parliamentary, and multiparty systems, that frustrate this goal of national greatness. Democratic elections are problematic because the masses elect candidates who appeal to the masses’ self-interest. This does not guarantee that the candidates have the nation’s interest in mind. This weakens the state and, ultimately, the nation. Parliament is problematic because the parties in it spend more time arguing than implementing policies. Indeed, Hitler referred to Parliament as a “twaddling shop” for this reason. Other parties are problematic because, by competing with fascist parties to gain power, they prevent fascist parties from pursuing the ultranationalist goal. The state is totalitarian because it controls aspects of citizens’ lives, such as their leisure time, education, and political activity, to ensure that the citizens support the regime’s goal. Fascism is the ideology of nationalism upheld by an anti-democratic and totalitarian state.

Fascism is2
Fascism is . . .

  • Irredentist

  • Def. Irredentism – refers to the desire of the people of a state to annex those contiguous territories of another country, inhabited by the same linguistic or cultural group (probably a minority in the neighboring state)


  • According to the February 1921 census 3,123,000 Germans lived in all Czechoslovakia - 23.4% of the total population.

  • The controversies between the Czechs and the German minority (which was actually a majority in the Sudetenland areas) lingered on throughout the 1920s and intensified in the 1930s.

  • Hitler’s irredentism resulted in his successful bid to pry the Sudetenland away from Czechoslovakia and annexing the territory to Germany

Fascism is3
Fascism is . . .

  • Racist

  • Why? You tell me. Think about it.

    (The Nazis are Fascists who took racism to an extreme. Most Fascists were fanatics but not as fanatical as the German variety of Fascism)

Fascism is4
Fascism is . . .

  • Anti-Semitic

Fascism is5
Fascism is . . .

  • Imperialistic

  • Why?

Fascism is6
Fascism is . . .

  • Highly Militaristic – Fascists celebrate the military and want to build it up as it is the key to achieving national strength and empire.

Fascism the individual the state and the leader
Fascism: The Individual, the State and the Leader

  • All individuals existed to enhance the power of the state and the nation it represented.

  • The state enforces unity through coercion and discipline.

  • The Leader (il Duce or Fuhrer) embodies the will of the nation and national unification.

Eugenics anyone
Eugenics Anyone?

  • Def. eugenics – the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

  • Handicapped – remove them

Fascism is7
Fascism is . . .

  • Anti-democratic

  • Why? You tell me. You think about it.