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Fascism. The Problems Involved in the study of Fascism. Fascism is a synonym for evil Fascism not as well articulated as Marxism Leninism Fascism confused with actions of particular states Few quality academic studies of fascism Pragmatic form of extreme nationalism

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the problems involved in the study of fascism
The Problems Involved in the study of Fascism
  • Fascism is a synonym for evil
  • Fascism not as well articulated as Marxism Leninism
  • Fascism confused with actions of particular states
  • Few quality academic studies of fascism
  • Pragmatic form of extreme nationalism
  • Celebrates violent irrational action
  • Leadership, and therefore, biography is key to understanding fascism
the problems involved in the study of fascism continued
The Problems Involved in the study of Fascism - Continued
  • The twentieth century as the century of fascism
  • Modern Revolutions resemble the principles of fascism more than the principles of Marx and Engels
  • Differentiating between Fascism and National Socialism
  • Continued applicability of fascist category to radical Islamic ideology
evolution of the doctrine
Evolution of the Doctrine
  • Mussolini’s transformations influenced fascist ideology
  • Emergence of an ethical dimension to the conception of the state
  • Social Darwinism
benito mussolini
Benito Mussolini
  • Born 1883 – Father was a blacksmith with radical political ideas
  • Becomes elementary school teacher and active in socialist circles culminating in several terms in prison and election as editor of socialist paper Avanti
  • Mussolini was a Marxist rather close to Leninist perspective that embraced violence – contempt for apathetic masses and emphasis on elite leadership is first deviation from classical Marxist thought. Gaetano Mosca and Vilfredo Pareto
benito mussolini6
Benito Mussolini
  • Emphasized the role of human will in creating history – voluntarism – Writings of Friedrich Nietzsche
  • Interest in Myth in human affairs – Georges Sorel
characteristics of fascism the nation state anti liberalism anti bolshevism corporativism
Characteristics of Fascism: The Nation State, Anti-Liberalism, Anti-Bolshevism, Corporativism
  • The Nation-State – The custodian and the transmitter of the spirit of the people
  • Anti-Liberalism – Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the state and accepts the individual only insofar as his interests coincide with those of the State.
  • Anti-Bolshevism – Against the classes dividing and weakening the state though willing to use state intervention to pursue autarky
  • Corporatism – a disciplined and controlled economy for promoting wealth, political power, and welfare of Italian people – remove conflict from the economic sector
national goals elitism and leadership
National Goals, Elitism, and Leadership
  • National goals – fascism emphasized action – force, violent action as a sign of health – Social Darwinism for states
  • Anti-intellectualism and emotional appeal primary mode of communication between leaders and the masses
  • The leader discovers the general will and is the personification of the people
fascism and race
Fascism and Race
  • Giovanni Gentile described national socialist racial theory as simplistic and unproven
  • German/Italian alliance leads to anti-Semitic legislation in Italy, but laws are not applied rigorously
  • Italian race understood more as the Italian nation and included Jews who served the state
fascist traits
Fascist Traits
  • Nation is fundamental unit of analysis of fascist doctrine
  • Anti-democratic, but willing to borrow from liberalism for its own purposes
  • Anti-socialistic, but utilized socialist measures in the economy