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BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM PowerPoint Presentation
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BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

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BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

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  1. SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE INITIATIVES ON INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA M.Ed. INTERIM REPORT BYUDOM, Ogechi Stella(06/25PC030) Supervisor: DR. S. A. ONASANYA Time: 10.00am

  2. BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM • It is becoming increasingly important that classrooms have multiple and diverse sets of ICT resources to meet the needs of the postmodern student who will interpret and produce knowledge through multiple literacy Buabeng-Andoh (2012). • Generally, educational technologies rely heavily on the growth of ICT resources. However, problems associated with lack of access to technologies, lack of training opportunities and skills development inhibits its use in educational context. • The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), Section 13 (121) states that financing education is a joint responsibility of the Federal, State and Local Governments and the private sector.

  3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM • Major sponsorship of education Education is generally perceived as the prerogative of the government. Lack of financial and managerial capacity often impede the governments’ ability to meet their obligations in regard to their national education systems(Al-Tarawneh, 2012). • The demand The new access devices to the Web, new broadband networks, and new social networking applications and increasing availability of educational content for online learning amongst others.

  4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM (CONTD.) • The upsurge of public-private initiatives in ICT Owhotu (2006) noted Nigeria has been in the lead on the integration of ICT tools with a number of initiatives through collaborations with the government, by development partners, NGOs (international and local) and private corporations. • Awan (2011) investigated teachers ICT attitudes and classroom ICT use and discovered that in spite of the investments in schools and the diverse initiatives taken by various governments, ICT uptake has been disappointingly slow.

  5. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Specifically, this study examined secondary school teachers’ perception of the: • objectives of public-private initiatives on ICT resources in schools where PPI exist. • values of public-private initiatives on ICT resources in schools where PPI. • ICT human resource provided by public-private initiatives in schools where PPI exist.

  6. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY (CONTD.) 4. ICT human resources training provided by public-private initiatives in schools where PPI exist. 5. ICT software resources available for use in schools where PPI exist. 6. ICT hardware resources available for use in schools where PPI exist. 7. usefulness of the ICT resources provided by public-private initiatives. 8. utilization of the ICT resources provided by public-private initiatives in schools where PPI exist.

  7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the objectives of public-private initiatives in facilitating ICT resources in schools where PPI exist? • How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the values of public-private initiatives in providing ICT resources in schools where PPI? • What is the perception of secondary school teachers’ on ICT human resources provided by public-private initiatives in schools where PPI exist? • What are the secondary school teachers’ Perceptions of ICT human resource training provided by public-private initiatives in schools where PPI?

  8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS (CONTD.) • What is the perception of secondary school teachers’ on ICT software resources available for use in schools where PPI exist? • What is the perception of secondary school teachers’ on ICT hardware resources available for use in schools where PPI exist? • How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the usefulness of the ICT resources provided by public-private initiatives? • How do secondary school teachers’ perceive utilization of the ICT resources provided by public-private initiatives?

  9. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS HO1There is no significant difference between the perception of experienced and less experienced teachers’ on PPI in ICT resources.

  10. SCOPE OF THE STUDY • The study involved all the secondary teachers’ in the government owned schools. However, using purposive sampling technique, the twenty (20) secondary schools that are beneficiaries of these initiatives were used. • The geographical scope of the study will be limited to Kwara State, Nigeria.

  11. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY It is expected that at the completion of this research, the teachers,students,public-private initiatives(in ICT for education and other sectors), curriculum developers,researchers, educationists and the entire nation will benefit from the findings.

  12. Clarification of Major Terms and Variables • Secondary school teachers; • Perception; • Public-private initiatives; • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources; • Schools where PPIs in ICT resources does not exist; • Experienced teacher; and • Less experienced teacher.

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW • An Overview of Public-Private Initiatives in Information and Communication Technology for Education; • The Concept and Meaning of Information and Communication Technology Resources; • Information and Communication Technology Policy and National Policy on Education; • Public-Private Initiatives and Their Values in Facilitating ICT Resources in Secondary Schools; • Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT Resources Usefulness and Utilization ; • Teachers’ Experience on the Integration of ICT Resources; and • Appraisal of the Reviewed Literature.

  14. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Type Descriptive research of the survey method was adopted in this study to describe and summarize the sampled data. This research type also helped the researcher to ascertain the extent to which the initiatives have achieved their goals in terms of providing resources that would enhance academic achievement

  15. Sample and Sampling Technique The population for this study were made up of all secondary school teachers in Kwara State. The target population was two hundred and seventy (270) teachers- an average of fifteen (15) respondents, from each of the sampled government owned secondary schools in Kwara State. Purposive sampling technique was employed in this study. Meaning that all the twenty (20) secondary schools where PPI in ICT for education exist in Kwara State participated.

  16. Research Instrument A researcher-designed questionnaire titled: Secondary School Teachers’ Perception of Public-Private Initiatives (SSTPPI) on ICT resources in Kwara State was administered to the sampled teachers. A draft of questionnaire was subjected to scrutiny and constructive criticism by researcher’s supervisor and two lecturers in the field of Educational Technology from the University of Ilorin. Based on their suggestions and corrections, modified final copies were produced.

  17. Reliability of the Instrument The degree of reliability of the instrument was ascertained through a pilot study at two weeks interval by using test-retest (coefficient of stability) method. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistical tool was employed to compute the coefficients of reliability of data obtained from the two administrations of the instrument which gave 0.957 on computation meaning that it is suitable for the research.

  18. Procedure for Data Collection The researcher sought the official permission and cooperation of the school management. The researcher personally administered the questionnaires. However, at some instances, ICT specialists employed by these initiatives assisted the researcher in distributing some to the teachers who were trained by these initiatives or by self and frequently used the facilities. A total number of two hundred and sixty-four (264) copies of questionnaire were later returned out of two hundred and seventy (270) copies administered.

  19. Data Analysis Techniques The data gathered was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Research questions was answered using frequency counts, means and simple percentage. the hypothesis was tested using chi-square.

  20. ANAYSIS AND RESULTS Research Question 1: How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the objectives of Public-Private Initiatives on ICT resources? In answering this research question, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire items 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11. Percentage was used to analyze the data collated and the result is as presented in Table 3 and Figure 3. It was found out that 1080 from 1548 responses which translates to 68.8% as the sum of the responses for both strongly agreed and agreed had positive perception of PPIs’ objectives on ICT resources, while 495 out of 1548 which corresponds to 31.2% had otherwise.

  21. Research Question 2: How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the value of Public-Private Initiatives on ICT resources? In answering this research question, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire items 2, 8, 10 and 12, and percentage was used to analyze the data collated. The result is presented in Table 4 and Figure 4. From the results obtained, it was found that 725 from 1056 responses which corresponds to 68.6% perceived that PPI are of positives value while 331 from1056 responses which corresponds to 31.4% perceived otherwise.

  22. Research Question 3: What is the perception of secondary school teachers’ on ICT human resources provided by Public-Private Initiatives? Table 5: Frequency Showing Presence of ICT Technician Figure 5: Pie Chart Showing Presence of ICT Technicians

  23. Research Question 4: What is the perception of secondary school teachers’ on ICT human resource training provided by Public-Private Initiatives? Table 6: Frequency Showing Where the Teachers’ Acquired Their ICT Skills Figure 6: Bar Chart Showing Teachers’ Sources of Acquiring ICT Skills.

  24. Question 5: What is the secondary school teachers’ perception on the ICT software resources available for use in schools where PPI exist? In answering research question four, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire items 14, 15 and 16 and percentage was used to analyze the data collated and the result is presented in Table 7 and Figure 7. It was found out that 571 out of 792 responses which correspond to 72% had positive perception while 178 from 792 responses which correspond to 28% had otherwise

  25. Research Question 6: What are the secondary school teachers’ perception on ICT hardware resources available for use in schools where exist? In answering this research question, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire section C and percentage was used to analyze the data collated and the result is presented in Table 8 and Figure 8. Table 8: Frequency of ICT Hardware Resources Available Figure 8: Bar Chart Showing Teachers’ Perception of ICT Hardware Resources Available

  26. Research Question 7: How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the usefulness of the ICT resources provided by Public-Private Initiatives? In answering this research question, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire items 1, 9, 18 and 20. Percentage was used to analyze the data collated and the result is presented in table 9 and figure 9 It was found out that 862 from 1056 responses which translates to 81.7% as the sum of the responses for both strongly agreed and agreed when summed are of the opinion that the ICT resources provided by PPI are useful, while 194 out of 1056 which corresponds to 18.3% had otherwise opinion.

  27. Research Question 8: How do secondary school teachers’ perceive the utilization of the ICT resources provided by Public-Private Initiatives? In answering this research question, the researcher collated the respondents’ responses to questionnaire items 15, 18, 21 and 22. Percentage was used to analyze the data collated and the result is presented in table 10 and figure 10 It was found out that 846 from 1056 responses which translates to 80.1% as the sum of the responses for both strongly agreed and agreed when summed are of the opinion that the ICT resources provided by PPI are useful, while 210 out of 1056 which corresponds to 19.9% had otherwise opinion.

  28. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In this study, the researcher tested one hypothesis using chi-square statistical tool. The responses of the respondents’ were collated and compared against their years of teaching experience. A null hypothesis which states that: there is no significant difference between the perception of experienced and less experienced teachers on PPI in ICT resources was tested. Thus, ᵡ2calculated = 38.617a Where a = 0.05 (level of significance) (ᵡ2) t = 43.773. Therefore, 38.617a < 43.773 Interpretation of findings Since the chi-square value ᵡ2 of 38.617a is less than the chi-square table value (ᵡ2) t of 43.773, we therefore accept the null hypothesis which states: there is no significant difference in the perception of experienced and less experienced teachers’ on Public-Private Initiatives in ICT resources.

  29. The findings revealed that: • secondary school teachers’ perceived PPIs objectives positively (68.8%) and so considered it worthwhile though 64% of the respondents’ were of the opinion that their activities are often influenced by political commitment(new leader, new goals leading to non-continuity of previous undertakings). • the teachers’ are of the opinion that the resources provided enhance teaching process (77.6%) Also, efforts are made by PPI to address low level of ICT skills among teachers but 56.8% of the respondents’ disagreed that PPI provide retainer fee for local technical company to maintain the ICT resources.

  30. findings contd. • III. the technical supports provided are inadequate. • IV. Majority (64.8%) of the teachers acquired their ICT skills through the PPIs seminars and workshops, though there was not enough time allotted for practical demonstration by the trainers. • V. the percentage of beneficiaries (37.4%) is small compared to the number of school age children that require such opportunities. The supplies of software resources to be used by teachers are limited but not out-dated.

  31. findings contd. VI. the ICT hardware/software resources are available. The quantity varied from school to school because some schools have two PPIs that supply them with ICT resources. VII. majority (92.8%) of the teachers’ perceived the ICT resources provided as being useful tools because its introduction in teaching and learning has brought a change in the delivery of education in their schools but few (56.1%) students have access to online material within the school.

  32. findings contd. • the teachers face some constraints in utilizing the ICT resources provided for the following reasons: • the nature of the lessons broadcast through the S/Africa channel on DSTV due to the differences in the curriculum; • not knowing the time of a particular lesson broadcast; • absence of jaws in the computer for the visually impaired; • not having enough resources for the number of learners; and • Not having had sufficient training and experience to the use of the ICT resources except for the ICT specialists employed. • IX. since the chi-square value ᵡ2 of 38.617a is less than the chi-square table value (ᵡ2) t of 43.773, we therefore accept the null hypothesis which states: there is no significant difference in the perception of experienced and less experienced teachers on Public-Private Initiatives in ICT resources.

  33. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The should be improvement in the constructive role of stakeholders/managers so that the program doesn’t fail at the grass roots. 2. There should be ongoing support (technical, logistical and educational). 3. Public-Private Initiatives should make it compulsory for all teachers to attend Educational Technology Management courses so that with or without an ICT expert they can manage their lessons. However, technical supports should be made inadequate.

  34. Recommendations contd. 4. Adequate time should be allotted for the seminars, workshops and trainings so as to practically demonstrate how to use the resources effectively and in return address the low level of ICT skills among teachers. 5. Government should levy education tax on business sectors to contribute a given quota of their profit to provide ICT resources. Also, a policy that the oil sector should donate a given percent for the supply of ICT resources to schools should be made. In addition, the rich citizens in the nation should support or establish foundations like building labs or providing free IT training to school age children.

  35. Recommendations contd. 6. Since, the findings of this study has shown that PPI efforts is worthwhile, more individuals, private sector, financial service providers, local computer firms amongst others should put their hands on deck so as to increase the quantity of ICT resources available in schools. 7. It is necessary to monitor not only the activities and budgets, but also the expected results. Because ICTs happen on the ground monitoring needs to be close to teachers and the schools.

  36. Recommendation contd. 8. In order to achieve the aims of these initiatives, the key stakeholders (teachers, curriculum planners, private and public sectors in ICT for education) should develop and incorporate a domestic curriculum into the broadcast since most of the lessons broadcast via the South Africa education channels through the DStv does not suit the actual needs of the learners in our community. Also, to increase utilization, there is a need to develop and circulate a fixed time table for lessons to be broadcast. For example, the NTA has a fixed time for Network News and everyone that tunes the television at that time listens to it. 9. In addition, PPIs should provide jaws to be attached to the computers for the visually impaired. Finally, School leaders/teachers should be encouraged to use the few ICT resources they have. They will make a difference.

  37. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!