The ancient Roman Empire spoke Latin from 100B.C.-400 A.D. They controlled what is modern-day France, Spain, and Portugal After the fall of the empire, Latin turned into French in France, Spanish in Spain, Portuguese in Portugal In the 1500’s A.D., Spain conquered the “new world” in South America They forced the people to learn Spanish, a language based on Latin Today, the areas where Spain, Portugal, and France (but mainly Spain) conquered is called “Latin” America
History - continued • The spoken languages are the result of the conquistadors. • Legacy of slavery – from 1600-1800 A.D. more African slaves were taken to Brazil - 3.6 million than to America – 650,000 • So Brazil’s population is highly diverse, with a large percentage of African Brazilians • 1800’s – Revolutions all over for independence against Spanish leaders took place • Today – most countries are democratic with lingering dictatorships
Conquistador – Spanish word for conqueror Cultural Convergence – merging of cultures What countries does France still own? France still owns French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe
Where would you expect to find tectonic plate boundaries in Latin America? Whenever a tectonic plate smashes into another one, usually a mountain range forms. So the west coast, where the Andes Mountain Range is, is the tectonic plate fault line. Based on the map, why do you think engineers would have chosen Panama for a canal? Because it is the narrowest point between the two continents and they wouldn’t have to dig as far.
Tropical Storm – storm with winds at least 39 mph; Hurricane – winds at least 74 mph, and in cyclone pattern; Southern Oscillation– Atmospheric component of the El Nino / La Nina cycle. High pressure vs low pressure areas that circulate the Pacific Ocean El Nino – ocean current in the Pacific Ocean that warms the cost of Peru and causes floods and droughts other places in the world. Would you expect Bolivia to be more strongly affected by hurricanes or by El Nino? Probably El Nino because El Nino begins off the coast there and causes hurricanes in other parts of the world.
Mestizo – native American and European descent Mulatto – European and African
Based on climate and topography, how would you explain the distribution of economic activities in Latin America? The people of the Amazon Basin are mainly subsistence farmers due to the poor soil and wet climate. Most manufacturing and trade takes place near the coast because of proximity to sea routes.
South America – 3 Regions • Northern Tropics - Characterized by warm tropical weather, rain forests, and coastal plains • Andean Countries - Characterized by coastal plains and highland mountains • Southern Grassland Countries - Many different characteristics with river system that connects them all
Latin America • Regions • South America • Central America • Spanish speaking, Portuguese and French
Andean Countries • Countries – Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile • People – mestizos native Indian peoples • Economic Activities – vertical trade, farming, lumber industry, fishing, manufacturing
Northern Tropics • Economic activity depends on elevation – • Countries – Guianas, Venezuela, Columbia • People – mulattoes and mestizos make up significant portion of population due to immigration and colonization • Economic Activities – OIL, sugar cane, rice, bauxite, coffee ---drugs.
Southern Grassland Countries • Estuary - rivers flow in an estuary and provide hydro-electric power to much of the countryside • Pampas and patagonia • Economic Activities – Patagonia has burgeoning electronics industry; cold weather prevents factories from needing air conditioning
Answer these Questions What is the major mountain chain in South America? What is the primary land use? Name the largest country in south America…in Central America.
Some more questions Where do the majority of Mexicans live? What is the major mountain range in Mexico? What industry do the provinces located on the Gulf depend on?
Even more questions Describe the type of terrain, or physical geography, that some of the Caribbean Islands have? The Bahamas, a group of islands, are called this. What climate do all of the islands have? Name one country or ethnicity that many citizens of the Caribbean nations descended from?
Try these questions: What is El Nino? Name the main Mexican mountain range. How were the flat Caribbean Islands formed?
How about these: Name one of the three regions of Latin America. What is the major mountain range of South America? Name one the two “mixed” ethnicity that make up the people living in Latin America and state their origins.
For the TEST • Know vocabulary: mestizo, mulato, estuary, deforestation • Study the map of Middle & South America!!!! Know where the countries are located!!!