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Dred Scott Decision (1857)

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  1. Dred Scott Decision (1857)

  2. Dred Scott Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri His owner traveled with Scott to Illinois and Wisconsin (free states). After his owner dies, Scott wants freedom. First, asks to pay for his freedom from his former master’s mistress. She says no. He sues for freedom.

  3. Court Battle • Scott argued that since he had lived for a time in free states (Wisconsin and Illinois) he should legally be free (slavery was illegal in these states). • Initially granted freedom but Missouri Supreme Court reverses decision. • Goes to the U.S. Supreme Court. • What do they decide?

  4. Decision • Roger Taney (Chief Justice and supporter of slavery) makes the decision.

  5. The United States Supreme Court (Chief Justice Roger B. Taney) ruled that all people of African ancestry—slaves as well as those who were free—could never become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue in federal court. The court also ruled that the federal government did not have the power to prohibit slavery in its territories because it deprived citizens of their constitutional protection of their property. 1857

  6. While the decision was well-received by slaveholders in the South, many northerners were outraged. The decision greatly influenced the nomination of Abraham Lincoln (who many thought would do something to fix the problems surrounding slavery) to the Republican Party and his subsequent election, which in turn led to the South's secession from the Union. Impact

  7. Picture/Dred Scott DRED SCOTT DECISION • Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. • His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. • He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. • Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue • Can a slave sue for his freedom? • Is a slave property? • Is slavery legal?

  8. Chart/Effect of Scott DRED SCOTT DECISION • Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision • Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. • They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. • Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that • Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory • Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional • North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law • Free states pass personal liberty laws. • Republicans claim the decision is not binding • Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.

  9. Reading/Scott decision DRED SCOTT DECISION Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted. “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.”

  10. What happened to Dred Scott? • 1857 The Blow brothers, his former master's sons and childhood friends of Scott, had helped pay Scott's legal fees through the years. After the Supreme Court's decision, they purchased Scott and his wife and set them free. • Scott was 58 years old.

  11. 1858 Dred Scott died nine months after gaining his freedom. He is buried in St. Louis.