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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Introduction to Business. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Chapter 11. Sales, Distribution, and Customer Relationship Management. Learning Objectives. Understand the relationship between marketing, distribution, sales, and personal selling.

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Chapter 11

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chapter 11


Introduction to Business

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 11

Sales, Distribution, and Customer Relationship Management

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the relationship between marketing, distribution, sales, and personal selling.
  • Discuss the main distribution channels a company can use to reach customers and the factors that determine distribution channel choices.
  • Differentiate between different approaches to personal selling and explain why the nature of a company’s products determines the selling approach.
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Outline the major issues and problems that arise during each stage of the personal selling process.
  • Explain how customer relationship management can improve the profitability of the sales and distribution process.
distribution and the sale of products to customers
Distribution and the Sale of Products to Customers
  • Distribution
    • the selection of the distribution channels to reach and deliver products to customers most efficiently and effectively
  • Distribution channel
    • the specific method a company uses to sell and deliver its products to customers
types of distribution channels
Types of Distribution Channels
  • Company-owned or licensed distributors
  • Wholesalers
  • Retailers
  • Direct distribution
company owned or licensed distributors
Company-Owned or Licensed Distributors
  • Personal selling
    • direct face-to-face communication by salespeople with existing and potential customers to promote a company’s products
company owned or licensed distributors1
Company-Owned or Licensed Distributors
  • Downstream value chain
    • all of the activities related to managing a product from the time it is made to the time it is delivered and used by customers
company owned or licensed distributors2
Company-Owned or Licensed Distributors
  • Licensed distributors or dealers
    • independent companies that buy the rights to distribute, sell, and service a company’s products within a specific geographical area
  • Exclusive dealerships
    • distributors that are licensed to stock and sell only one brand of a product

What are intermediaries who sell other companies’ products to the final customer?

  • Wholesalers
  • Retailers
  • Distributors
  • Merchants
  • Wholesaler
    • an intermediary or broker that buys products from manufacturers and then resells them to other companies, such as retailers, which in turn distribute them to the final customer
  • Final customer
    • the person who actually uses or consumes a product
  • Retailers
    • intermediaries who sell other companies’ products to the final customer
direct distribution
Direct Distribution
  • Direct distribution
    • distribution channels used to deliver and sell products directly to the final customer
the distribution mix and how it s chosen
The Distribution Mix and How It’s Chosen
  • Distribution mix
    • the combination of channels a company selects to place, promote, sell, and deliver its products to customers
factors affecting the choice of distribution mix
Factors Affecting the Choice of Distribution Mix
  • Product characteristics
  • The importance of the purchase to the final customer
  • The need to customize a product
product characteristics
Product Characteristics
  • Complex products
    • products with qualities and characteristics that make them difficult for customers to evaluate
selling complex products
Selling Complex Products
  • Technical selling
    • selling that requires a company’s sales representatives to impart detailed technical information to their customers
selling complex products1
Selling Complex Products
  • Missionary selling
    • selling that occurs when a salesperson educates customers, builds goodwill, and performs promotional activities to encourage them to purchase a product at a later date
  • Agent
    • a person, or intermediary, acting on behalf of final customers
selling complex products2
Selling Complex Products
  • Creative selling
    • selling that requires salespeople to combine their technical knowledge and personal selling experience to craft creative and unique ways to better meet the needs of their customers
selling complex products3
Selling Complex Products
  • Connoisseur
    • a person with immense knowledge about a particular type of product and who can identify the qualities that make it valuable
selling standardized products
Selling Standardized Products
  • Trade selling
  • Retail selling
  • Telemarketing
selling standardized products1
Selling Standardized Products
  • Trade selling
    • selling done through intermediaries, such as wholesalers and retailers, which manage the sale of a company’s products to other companies
  • Retail selling
    • selling to the final customer – the person who buys a product for his or her own use
selling standardized products2
Selling Standardized Products
  • Telemarketing
    • a sales method used to contact prospective customers exclusively by phone

Find out how to use telemarketing at

stages in the selling process
Stages in the Selling Process
  • Prospecting for customers
  • Making the initial contact
  • Making the sales presentation
  • Handling objections
  • Closing the sale
  • Doing after-sales service, follow-up, and information gathering

What are potential customers for the goods and services a salesperson is offering?

  • Patrons
  • Sponsors
  • Consumers
  • Prospects
prospecting for customers
Prospecting for Customers
  • Prospects
    • potential customers for the goods and services a salesperson is offering
making the initial contact
Making the Initial Contact
  • Cold calls
    • the first contact a salesperson has with a customer, either by e-mail, phone, or in person
doing after sales service follow up and information gathering
Doing After-Sales Service, Follow-Up, and Information Gathering
  • Buyer’s remorse
    • a phenomenon that occurs when a customer believes he or she made a poor purchasing choice
customer relationship management
Customer Relationship Management
  • Customer relationship management system
    • an IT-based knowledge management system designed to track a company’s customers – what they are buying, how satisfied they are, and how their demands are changing
video new belgium brewery
Video: New Belgium Brewery
  • NBB achieves efficiencies through its supply chain management processes where it fully utilizes its facilities by employing machines and technology and reducing the need for direct labor.
  • What are the key components involved in comparing manufacturing to service organizations?