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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN. PHASE 2 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Analyzing Requirements. Objectives. Explain the structured analysis process and identify its elements Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use

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systems analysis design




Analyzing Requirements

  • Explain the structured analysis process and identify its elements
  • Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use
  • Explain the sequence of data flow diagrams, from general to specific, and what each data flow contains
  • Explain how to level and balance a set of data flow diagrams
  • Draw a complete set of data flow diagrams for an information system
  • Describe how a data dictionary is used and what it contains
  • Explain the relationships among data flow diagrams, the data dictionary, and process descriptions
Systems analysis phase has three stages

Requirements determination (Chapter 3)

Requirements analysis (Chapter 4)

Evaluation of alternatives (Chapter 5)

structured analysis
Structured Analysis
  • Examines inputs, outputs, and processes
  • Common method
  • Process-centered technique
  • Uses three main tools
    • Data flow diagrams (DFDs)
    • Data dictionary
    • Process descriptions
  • Tools can be applied using computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools
data flow diagrams
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are graphical aids that describe an information system
  • DFDs represent a logical model that shows what a system does, not how it does it
data flow diagrams7
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data flow diagram symbols
    • Four basic symbols
      • Process
      • Data flow
      • Data store
      • External entity
    • Two popular symbol sets
      • Gane and Sarson
      • Yourdon
data flow diagrams9
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Process symbol
    • Symbol is a rectangle with rounded corners
    • Documented with process descriptions
    • Receive input data and produces output
    • Output has a different form, or content, or both
    • Details are shown in a process description
    • In DFDs the process symbol appears as a black box, underlying details not shown
data flow diagrams10
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data flow symbol
    • Symbol is a line with an arrowhead showing direction
    • A path for data to move from one part of the system to another
    • Might represent one or many pieces of data
    • At least one data flow must enter and exit each process
data flow diagrams11
Data Flow Diagrams
  • External entity symbol
    • Symbol is a square, usually shaded
    • Represents a person, organization, or other system that provides data or receives output from the system
    • External entities are called terminators
      • Source (supplies data to the system)
      • Sink (receives data from the system)
data flow diagrams12
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Context diagrams
    • Top-level view that shows the overall boundaries of the system
    • Represent the results of fact-finding
    • One process symbol, numbered 0 (zero) is drawn in the center
    • Process name in the context diagram should be the name of the information system
    • Data flows connect the process to the entities
    • Abbreviated symbols can be used to identify entities
    • Each context diagram must fit on one page
data flow diagrams16
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data flow symbol
    • Incorrect process and data flow combinations cause problems
      • Spontaneous generation (miracle)
      • Black hole
      • Gray hole
data flow diagrams19
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data store symbol
    • Symbol is a rectangle open on the right side
    • Data store also is called a data repository
    • Represents data that is retained for later processing
    • Must be connected to a process with a data flow
    • Must have at least one outgoing and incoming data flow
data flow diagrams24
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Conventions for data flow diagrams
    • Use unique names within each set of symbols
    • Do not cross lines
    • Use abbreviated identifications
    • Use a unique reference number for each process symbol
data flow diagrams25
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Diagram 0
    • Displays more detail than the context diagram
    • Shows entities, major processes, data flows, and data stores
    • Other characteristics
        • Can contain diverging data flows
        • Exploded (partitioned or decomposed) version of process 0
        • Diagram 0 is the child of the parentcontext diagram
        • Also can be called an overview or level 0 diagram
        • Can contain functional primitives
data flow diagrams26
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Lower-level diagrams
    • Usually necessary to show more detail
    • Design must consider
      • Leveling
      • Balancing
      • Data stores
data flow diagrams27
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Leveling
    • Process of drawing increasingly detailed diagrams
    • Also called exploding, partitioning, or decomposing
data flow diagrams28
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Balancing
    • Maintains consistency among an entire set of DFDs
    • Parent’s input and output data flows are preserved on the child
data flow diagrams29
Data Flow Diagrams
  • Data stores
    • Might not appear on higher-level DFDs
    • Are shown on the the highest-level DFD that has two or more processes using that data store
data dictionary
Data Dictionary
  • Also called data repository
  • Documents specific facts about the system
    • Data flows
    • Data stores
    • External entities
    • Processes
    • Data elements (data items, fields)
    • Records (data structures)
  • Data dictionary is a central storehouse for documentation
  • Using this data, you can produce many valuable reports
data dictionary35
Data Dictionary
  • External Entities
    • Name
    • Alternate name(s)
    • Description
    • Input data flows
    • Output data flows
data dictionary36
Data Dictionary
  • Processes
    • Name or label
    • Purpose or description
    • Process number
    • Input data flows
    • Output data flows
    • Process description
data dictionary37
Data Dictionary
  • Data Flows
    • Name or label
    • Alternate name(s)
    • Abbreviation or ID
    • Description
    • Origin
    • Destination
    • Record
    • Volume and frequency
data dictionary38
Data Dictionary
  • Data Stores
    • Name or label
    • Alternate name(s)
    • Abbreviation or ID
    • Description
    • Input data flows
    • Output data flows
    • Record
    • Volume and frequency
data dictionary39
Data Dictionary
  • Data Elements
    • Name or label
    • Alternate name(s)
    • Type and length
    • Output format or edit mask
    • Default value
    • Prompt, column header or field caption
    • Source
    • Security
    • Responsible user(s)
    • Acceptable values and validation
    • Derivation formula
    • Description or comments