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Phase 2 – Systems Analysis. Requirements Modeling Chapter 1. Objectives. Explain systems analysis phase activities and the end product. Describe joint application Development. Describe Unified Modeling Language. Explain the use of functional decompositional diagrams.

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phase 2 systems analysis

Phase 2 – Systems Analysis

Requirements Modeling

Chapter 1

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain systems analysis phase activities and the end product.
  • Describe joint application Development.
  • Describe Unified Modeling Language.
  • Explain the use of functional decompositional diagrams.
  • Describe system requirements.
  • Scalability
  • Total cost of ownership
objectives3
Objectives
  • Describe how to conduct a successful interview.
  • Explain when and how to use factfinding techniques.
  • Develop effective documentation methods to use during systems development.
requirements modeling
Requirements modeling
  • Involves investigation and fact-finding to describe the current system and define the requirements for the new system
  • Must use critical thinking skills
  • Interpersonal skills become particularly important
system development methods
System Development Methods
  • Structured Analysis – IT staff has central role – common method of systems development
  • JAD – team approach for fact-finding and requirements modeling
  • RAD – team approach that speeds up IS development and produces a functioning IS
modeling tools and techniques
Modeling Tools and Techniques
  • UML (Unified Modeling Language)
    • Use Case Diagrams – visually represents the interaction between users and IS
      • Actor (user)
    • Sequence Diagrams – show the timing of transactions between objects as they occur
  • Functional Decomposition Diagrams (FDD)
    • Top-down representation of business functions and processes – similar to drawing organization chart
systems analysis
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
  • REQUIREMENTS DETERMINATION
  • REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
  • MAKE A DECISION
systems analysis15
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
  • Learn exactly what takes place in current system
  • Determine/document what should take place
  • Develop and make recommendations to management
systems analysis16
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
  • Phase is complex because information systems are large, difficult to define and subject to change
  • Must understand/integrate system needs of all users (possibly conflicting needs)
system requirements
System Requirements
  • Characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users
  • Benchmarks to measure overall acceptability of finished system
system requirement
SYSTEM REQUIREMENT
  • basis for further development of new system
  • documented requirements are standards against which we measure the completed IS
system requirements categories
System Requirements Categories

Scalability

Total cost of ownership

  • Outputs
  • Inputs
  • Processes
  • Performance
  • Controls
fact finding
FACT FINDING
  • WHO
  • WHAT
  • WHERE
  • WHEN
  • HOW
  • WHY
interview steps
INTERVIEW STEPS
  • Determine who to interview
  • Establish objectives
  • Develop interview questions
  • Prepare for interview
  • Conduct interview
  • Document interview
  • Evaluate interview
determine who to interview
Determine WHO to Interview
  • All levels of organization
  • Organization chart
  • informal structures
establish objectives
ESTABLISH OBJECTIVES
  • determine general areas to be discussed -- framework
  • objectives depend on who is being interviewed
develop interview questions
DEVELOP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
  • List of questions to help keep you on track
  • May not ask all questions on list
  • May ask questions not on list
  • Open-ended, closed-ended, range of response
prepare for interview
PREPARE FOR INTERVIEW
  • Schedule day/time for interview
  • Inform department supervisor
  • Send completed list of questions/topics to interviewee
conduct interview
CONDUCT INTERVIEW
  • Introduce Yourself
  • Summarize project objectives/progress
  • Summarize interview objectives
  • Ask questions -- open to closed
  • Summarize main points
  • Identify what still needs to be done
  • Thank interviewee
document interview
DOCUMENT INTERVIEW
  • Time immediately after interview to record events and information
taking notes
TAKING NOTES
  • USING A TAPE RECORDER
evaluate interview
EVALUATE INTERVIEW
  • Did you get all the required information?
  • If not, why?
  • If not, how will you get it?
unsuccessful interviews
UNSUCCESSFUL INTERVIEWS
  • End interview tactfully
  • Don’t have to ask all identified questions
  • Must get information elsewhere
document review
DOCUMENT REVIEW
  • Review existing system documentation
  • May not be up-to-date
  • Get copies of actual forms (blank and completed)
observation
OBSERVATION
  • Personal observation of current operating procedures
  • Seeing system in action
  • Should verify system documentation and interview results!!!!
hawthorne effect
HAWTHORNE EFFECT
  • Study performed in 1920’s
  • Worker productivity improved whether the environmental conditions were made better or worse
questionnaire
QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Document containing a number of standard questions that you ask a large number of people
  • Gain limited amount of information from many sources
  • anonymous
sampling
SAMPLING
  • Collect examples of actual documents/data
    • Records, reports, data entry documents, work requests…
  • Systematic
  • Stratified
  • Random
  • Purpose of sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately
research
RESEARCH
  • Review journals, periodicals, books
  • attend professional meetings, seminars
  • formal or informal discussions with other professionals
  • Site visitations
  • ANYTHING EXTERNAL TO THE COMPANY
documentation
Documentation
  • Record info as you obtain it
  • Simple format
  • Should be understood by non-IS staff
  • Good writing is important
what s next
What’s Next??
  • Requirements Analysis
  • Create Formal Report
  • Formal Presentation
softwear limited
Softwear, Limited
  • Systems Planning: systems request to investigate problems with the company’s payroll system.
  • Systems analyst Rick Williams found several problems during the preliminary investigation.
    • Input errors
    • Need for manual preparation of various reports
  • Requirements modeling begins.
softwear limited47
Softwear, Limited
  • Rick learned errors occurred in employee stock purchase deductions.
    • Needed to study the process.
    • Reviewed org chart and decided to interview Manager of human resources administration.
    • Sends a memo to HR director.
    • Makes appointment with Meredith.
softwear limited49
Softwear, Limited
  • Interview results:
    • Hired employees complete a Payroll Master Record Form.
    • HR completes from with salary info.
    • If rate or status changes a Payroll Status Change Form is completed.
initial interview
Initial Interview
  • Meredith explained:
    • Hired employees complete a Payroll Master Record Form.
    • HR completes with salary info.
    • HR completes a Payroll Status Change Form.
    • After 90 days, CU deductions.
    • After 180 days, stock purchase plan.
      • HR forwards to payroll.
next steps
Next Steps
  • Interviewed lead payroll clerk, Nelson.
    • Confirmed process that Meredith relayed.
  • Added process of time sheet.
  • Deductions:
    • CU handled weekly.
      • Uses report from payroll processor (BIS).
    • Stock is purchased monthly.
      • Does by hand, no report available.
bis interview
BIS Interview
  • Currently using GAPP, Generalized Automated Payroll Program
    • Developed in 1991, with many updates.
  • Just released CHIPS, Comprehensive High-powered Interactive Payroll System.
  • BIS looks forward to the conversion!
  • Gapp will be supported for one year, with no further enhancements.
bis interview57
BIS Interview
  • Rick described cycle problems.
    • SWL was their only customer with more than one deduction cycle.
    • Programming CHIPS to meet SWL needs would not be feasible.
      • Could possibly add it on later for them specially.
    • No release date on CHIPS, sometime next year. Still in development.
    • Monthly fee should not increase more than 30%.
    • More specifics in a few months.
new developments
New Developments
  • Rick meet with his manager and the director of IT.
    • He requested the scope of the project be changed.
    • In requesting this from VP of Finance, they learned that a new 401K program was approved.
revised project
Revised Project
  • Carla Moore, PA was assigned.
  • Needed to determine new requirements.
    • Same and additional people were interviewed.
      • HR rep
      • Payroll Clerks
    • Produced a Functional Decomposition Diagram
new century health clinic
NEW CENTURY HEALTH CLINIC
  • preliminary investigation recommended a detailed analysis of
    • patient record system
    • patient and insurance billing system
    • patient scheduling system
new century health clinic63
NEW CENTURY HEALTH CLINIC
  • After DISCUSSION, Associates agreed to hire you to perform Systems Analysis
  • Group Discussion -- 1,2,3 p. 3.44
  • One case submitted per team