part i introduction n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Part I: Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Part I: Introduction

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Part I: Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on

Part I: Introduction. Chapter 1: What is Philosophy?. Origin and History of Philosophy. “Philean”= love + “Sophia”= wisdom Literally “love of wisdom” What is wisdom? Knowledge about universe (Pythagoras) The possession of virtue and power (Sophists) Awareness of ignorance (Socrates).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Part I: Introduction' - ostinmannual


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
part i introduction

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: What is Philosophy?

origin and history of philosophy
Origin and History of Philosophy
  • “Philean”= love + “Sophia”= wisdom
  • Literally “love of wisdom”
  • What is wisdom?
    • Knowledge about universe (Pythagoras)
    • The possession of virtue and power (Sophists)
    • Awareness of ignorance (Socrates)
definition of philosophy
Definition of Philosophy
  • Philosophy – Rational attempt to formulate, understand, and answer fundamental questions
study of philosophy
Study of Philosophy
  • Philosophy searches for knowledge through:
    • Questions
    • Search for fundamental and abstract truth
branches of western philosophy
Branches of Western Philosophy
  • Metaphysics – What is truly real?
  • Epistemology – What is knowledge and truth?
  • Axiology – What is the distinction between value and fact?
    • Aesthetics – What is objective or subjective?
    • Ethics – How is human action judged morally right or wrong?
slide6
If philosophy is the rational attempt to formulate, understand, and answer fundamental questions, then:
    • What is rational?
    • What is fundamental?
what is rationality
What is Rationality?
  • Rationality – the way we think and investigate questions
  • Zhuangzi – 350 BCE. What are the standards by which to settle an argument? Can they be universal?
what is fundamental
What is fundamental?
  • Two Perspectives:
    • Foundationalism
    • Constructivism
foundationalism
Foundationalism
  • Foundationalism –maintains that there must be objective and universal standards of rationality
  • Law of noncontradiction – a statement cannot be both true and false
constructivism
Constructivism
  • Constructivism – the critique of foundationalism
  • Key Attributes
    • Rationality is a social construction, therefore, it cannot be achieved without prejudice or bias
    • Cognitive relativism – denial of universal truth
    • Ethical relativism – denial of universal moral principles
finding common ground between foundationalists and constructivists
Finding Common Ground between foundationalists and constructivists
  • Acknowledge ethnocentrism – cultural and ethnic biases
  • Deny ethnocentric imperialism – the idea that cultures will impose their views on others
finding common ground between foundationalists and constructivists1
Finding Common Ground between foundationalists and constructivists
  • Recognize difference between strong and weak relativism
    • Strong sense – claims there are no universally valid standards
    • Weak sense – claims that standards of rationality and morality are culturally diverse
finding common ground between foundationalists and constructivists2
Finding Common Ground between foundationalists and constructivists
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer: “fusion of horizons”
    • Truth is found through
      • recognizing that one’s own understanding is a horizon resulting from perspective and biases
      • being willing to risk that horizon in order to see the other person’s
the value of philosophy
The Value of Philosophy
  • Bertrand Russell
    • Enlargement of the Self
    • Contemplation increases awareness
    • Mind that studies the universe is great because of the greatness of the universe
who are the philosophers
Who are the Philosophers?
  • Those honored as wise
  • Those who make philosophy a profession
socrates caf by christopher phillips
“Socrates Café” by Christopher Phillips
  • Philosophical discussion can take place in the general public
  • Value questions more than answers
  • Socratic method – the art of learning through asking questions
  • Challenge to engage in philosophy
reading philosophy
Reading Philosophy
  • Read analytically
  • Read critically