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Optical communication Part –1 . Where:. =. And n 2 > n 1. i. e. r. i. t. t. e. i. i. r. Reflected ray. Impinging ray of monochromatic light. Second order reflected ray. n 1. Optically transparent plate of n 2 with parallel surfaces in a medium with n 1 (n vacuum =1).

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Where:

=

And n2 > n1

i

e

r

i

t

t

e

i

i

r

Reflected ray

Impinging ray of monochromatic light

Second order reflected ray

n1

Optically transparent plate of n2 with parallel surfaces in a medium with n1 (nvacuum =1)

Refracted ray

n2

n1

Where:

= angle of incident ray

= angle of reflected ray

= angle of refracted ray

= angle of emerging ray

Emerging ray

slide3

2

2

No refraction; ( = 900)

900

n1

n1

n2 > n1

n2

n2 > n1

n2

i

Refraction; ( < 900)

slide4

n1

n2

n3

n4

n5

n6

n7

Where: n1 > n2 > n3 > n4 > n5 > n6 > n7 > n8

slide5

1

2

1

J

K

N

2

= angle of deflection

n1

Composite beam

+

…+

Prism

n2

Base of prism

n2> n1

slide6

Impinging circularly

or elliptically polarized ray

Reflected linearly

polarized ray

Birefringent

medium

Two refracted

linearly polarized rays

slide7

Absorption

Scattering

Impurities

Rays of light

slide8

Attention due to - OH

1.6

1.2

1.4

( m)

Transmitted optical loss (dB)

slide9

Preasure

Streching points

Fiber

R

Compression points

R = radius of bent

slide11

Plastic

KavlerTM

Buffer coating

Cladding

Glassy core

Cross section (not to scale)

slide12

n (x)

n1

Step index profile

n2

x

Core fiber

n (x)

Coating

n1

Graded index profile

x

slide13

d = 8.6-9.5 m

D = 125 2 m

D = 125 2 m

d = 50 m

Core fiber ncore

nclad

Cladding

Cladding

nclad

Multimode fiber

- many rays (modes) may propagate

Single mode fiber

-one ray (mode) due to

small ratio D/d propagates

slide14

Graded index

n2

n1

Step index

slide15

Critical cone

Cladding

n2

n1

crit

Core

n1>n2

slide16

1

1

t

t

Cladding

n2

n1

Ray B

Ray A

Core

Impulse entering the fiber

Impulse exiting the fiber

slide17

2

1

t

t

Cladding

n2

n1

t1

t2

Core

Impulse entering the fiber

Impulse exiting the fiber

slide19

Material dispersion

Wavelength dispersion

Dispersion flattened

Conventional fiber

20

Zero-dispersion points

Dispersion

flattened

Dispersion,

psec/nm-km

Conventional fiber

Dispersion-shifted fiber

-20

Dispersion-shifted fiber

1200

1400

1600