Communication includes all of the procedures by which one mind may affect another.
Communication is the mechanism through which human relations exists and develop.
Communication is simply the sharing of an orientation toward a set of informational signs.
What is Communication? -the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge, etc. -the transfer of thoughts and messages by sign and sounds
Communication Process Feedback Source Decoding Receiver Message Encoding Noise
Traditional Model Mass Communication C C Firm Content C Medium C
Mass Media Effects: • Medium is Conduit • Audience is homogeneous w/ respect to information • No interaction among consumers and firm
Interactive Communication Messages conveyed through a computer-mediated environment (CME) involving one or more of the following types of interactivity:
Interactive Communication • interaction between senders and receivers • interaction between humans and machines • interaction between message and its users
Interactive Communication Interactive media permit audience members to be active participants in the communication process, whereby, the message changes in response to participant actions
Interactive Model F F F Content C Content F Medium Content C Content C C
Mediated Model Primary relationship is with Computer Mediated Environment with which you interact. Content is mediated by participants and then experienced.
Mediated Model • Companies can provide content to medium and interact with each other • Companies and individuals can interact • Individuals can interact with the medium and with each other • Individuals can easily provide content to the medium
World Wide Web • Virtual, many-to-many hypermedia environment incorporating interactivity between people and computers. • Individual’s capability in the virtual environment introduces a competency issue. • Individual is actively engage in the process of network navigation.
Navigation Behaviors • Experiential • Goal-directed
“Flow” • Process of optimal experience
Concept of FLOW • Seamless sequence of responses facilitated by machine activity • Intrinsically enjoyable • Loss of self-consciousness • Self-reinforcing
For Flow to be experienced: • Consumer must perceive skills/challenges to be in balance • Consumer must be paying attention
Outcomes of Flow • Increased learning • Increased exploratory behavior • Positive subjective experiences • Objective of a good web site is to facilitate the flow experience.
Web Metrics Terminology & Measurement
Visit A visit is a Web user with a unique address entering a Web site at some page for the first time that day (or for the first time in a lesser time period).
Unique visitor A unique visitor is someone with a unique address who is entering a Web site for the first time that day (or some other specified period). Thus, a visitor that returns within the same day is not counted twice.
Unique visitor A unique visitors count tells you how many different people there are in your audience during the time period, but not how much they used the site during the period.
View A view is either an ad view or a page view. Usually an ad view is what's meant. There can be multiple ad views per page views.
Click rate The click rate is the percentage of ad views that resulted in clickthroughs.
Clickthrough A clickthrough is what is counted by the sponsoring site as a result of an ad click.
Pay-per-view Prevalent type of ad buying arrangement at larger Web sites.
Pay-per-click The advertiser pays a certain amount for each clickthrough to the advertiser's Web site. The amount paid per clickthrough is arranged at the time of the insertion order and varies considerably.
Impression An impression is "The count of a delivered basic advertising unit from an ad distribution point." Impressions are how most Web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions (CPM).
What are cookies? • A "cookie" is a small piece of information sent by a web server to store on a web browser so it can later be read back from that browser. This is useful for having the browser remember some specific information.
What are cookies used for? • Used to store information about the user • EX. Browser stores your passwords and user ID’s • EX. Preferences of start pages, Microsoft/Netscape
What are cookies used for? • Online Ordering Systems. • An online ordering system could be developed using cookies that would remember what a person wants to buy. • If a person spends 30 minutes ordering CDs at your site and suddenly has to get off the net they could quit the browser, return and still have those items in their shopping basket.
What are cookies used for? • Site Personalization. • This is one of the most beneficial uses. • EX. A person comes to the MSNBC site but doesn't want to see any sports news. They allow you to select this as an option. • From then on (until the cookie expires) you wouldn't see sports news.
What are cookies used for? • Website Tracking. • Cookie can be used to track where you travel over a particular site. • Using cookies just makes the tracking data a little more consistent. Site tracking can show you "Dead End Paths”. • It can also give you more accurate counts of how many people have been to pages on your site. You could differentiate 50 unique people seeing your site from one person hitting the reload button 50 times.
Data traffic is expanding • Web pages in 1998 829 million • Web pages in 1999 1.45 billion • Web pages in 2002 7.7 billion
How many online? 580.78 million* May 2002
Access to the Internet has leveled off at approximately 70 percent of all Americans* *Arbitron and Edison Media Research
Age of Internet Users • 45-64 20% +1.2% • 35-44 24.8% -1.0% • 25-34 20.8% -1.0% • 18-24 17.5% +.9%
Baby Boomers/Seniors Fastest growing Internet population that now comprises 20% of online users
Baby Boomers/Seniors • Surf more frequently • Stay there longer • Check out more Internet pages than college-age users • NOT technology laggards!
US college students on the Net • 86 percent of US college students use the Internet • Students say the Internet is essential to both their academic and social lives • 80 percent of college students in the US say the Net has had a positive impact on their college academic experience, while 60 percent think it has improved their relationships with classmates