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Leadership. SM/REC 163 Dr. Paul Milton. Profiles. Take some time to do this May do some research on this class. Consider Some Key Points. Write down a few ideas, OK to use information from chapters Then, as before, get with same group number Discuss and appoint spokesperson

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SM/REC 163

Dr. Paul Milton

  • Take some time to do this
  • May do some research on this class
consider some key points
Consider Some Key Points
  • Write down a few ideas, OK to use information from chapters
  • Then, as before, get with same group number
  • Discuss and appoint spokesperson
  • Share ideas with class
continue with key concepts
Continue with Key Concepts
  • The Purpose of Management
  • Capabilities of Effective Org’s.
  • Leading in today’s environment
  • Cause of the transformation?
  • “Megawaves” of Change?
  • Impact of these trends (Megawaves)
  • Organizations source of comp. adv.?
the challenges of leading an any organization
The Challenges of Leading an (any) Organization
  • Full-time responsibility
  • Continually practiced
  • No sure fire-techniques that work every time
  • Key ideas and skills

Reflective pause…

  • Human nature is emotional
true or false
True or False?
  • There is one best style or method of leadership
management defined
Management Defined
  • Like most management/leadership concepts, no one pure, strict definition in common usage.
  • Look and at HBJ:

“Process of working with and through individuals and groups and other resources to accomplish organizational goals” (p. 9).

leadership defined
Leadership Defined
  • Broader concept than management
  • Distinction: Organizational goals

-Management: for goals of the org.

-Leadership: could be for any one,


  • Don’t forget: Management is a special kind of leadership, goals of the organization are “paramount”.
differentiation bennis
Differentiation (Bennis)

A LeaderA Manager

Conquers the context Surrenders to it

Innovates Administrates

Is an original Is a copy

Develops Maintains

Focuses on people Focuses on S & S

Inspires trust Relies on control

Has long-range view Has short-range view

Asks what and why Asks how and when

Does the right things Does things right

the age old question
The Age-old Question
  • Are leaders born, or made?
  • HBJ, and others say: both

General Impacts:


Formal Experience

Informal Experience


three competencies
Three Competencies
  • Diagnosing
  • Adapting
  • Communicating
manager skills
Manager Skills
  • At least three areas:

1. Technical

2. Human

3. Conceptual

true or false13
True or False?
  • As a manager moves to higher level positions, technical skill becomes less important
  • At higher levels of management, conceptual skills become increasingly important
effective human skills
Effective Human Skills
  • Understanding Behavior
  • Predicting Behavior
  • Directing, Changing, Controlling Behavior
  • Controlling People
  • Need a variety of tools
  • Learning and being willing to apply and practice theory
foundations of modern leadership theory
Foundations of Modern Leadership Theory
  • Syllabus add the word “theory”
  • Behavior and motivation
  • Study of psychology
  • Greater detail on classic theorists
    • Lewin, Maier, Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Expectancy Theory
  • Gain perspective…
theory match up
Theory Match-up
  • Lewin
  • Maier
  • Vroom
  • Maslow
  • Alderfer
  • McClelland

Match these names to the theories listed on the handout

theories of behavior
Theories of Behavior
  • Lewin important starting point
  • Goal-oriented behavior
  • The Causal Sequence (Maier)
    • Motives
    • Goals
    • Motive strength
  • Changes in motive strength
changes in motive strength
Changes in Motive Strength
  • Need satisfaction
  • Blocking need satisfaction
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Frustration
  • Increasing motive strength
expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory
  • Link between effort and performance
  • Performance – Reward link
  • Need elicits behavior
  • Expect that hard work gets rewarded
factors affecting expectancy theory
Factors Affecting Expectancy Theory
  • Availability
  • Personality Development
  • Changing Personality
hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of needs
  • One of all time classics
  • Needs
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Social
    • Esteem
    • Self-actualization
erg theory
ERG Theory
  • Adjustment to Hierarchy of Needs
  • Three core needs
    • Existence
    • Relatedness
    • Growth
  • Other Motivational research
    • Various “needs” research
other motivational studies
Other Motivational Studies
  • “Need” research
    • Physiological
    • Safety
    • Social
    • Esteem: Prestige and Power needs
    • Self-actualization: Competence and Achievement
today s leadership thoughts
Today’s Leadership Thoughts
  • Let people know you believe in something and have faith
  • Be there for people, even when they make mistakes

-from What Do Followers Expect from Leaders?, Holmes, P. (1998)

more foundations from classical to modern
More Foundations: From Classical to Modern
  • Scientific Management – Taylor
  • Mayo and Hawthorne studies

-Extend research through interviews

-Coined term “anomie”

-Developed Rabble Hypothesis

  • McGregor

-Theory X and Theory Y, from Mayo?

-Ouchi and Theory Z


-how workers are viewed

-Basic assumptions about human nature

  • Argyris

-Pattern A and Pattern B

-Patterns are defined as behaviors

-Note some of the descriptors used in both patterns

  • Homans

-Informal Work Groups




-Power of informal work groups

-especially in controlling group


still more
Still More
  • Herzberg

-Motivation-Hygiene Theory

-Hygiene factors


  • Herzberg-Maslow connection

-Needs/motives and Goals/incentives

  • Hygiene factors are “big deal”
theory x y vs pattern a b
Theory X & Y vs.Pattern A & B
  • Are there similarities between both?
  • Differences?
  • Which one is attitudinal and which one is behavioral?
  • This comparison is important to the authors- Hersey, et.al.,

-they largely base own SLT on it

today s leadership thoughts31
Today’s Leadership Thoughts
  • Anyone can lead on the good days
  • You win with the people you surround yourself with
  • Once you think you have arrived, you are already apostate

---all anonymous

what makes a great leader
What Makes a Great Leader?
  • Some of your “Favorite Persons”:

Father LeBron James

My Parents Mom (5)

Larry Bird Lance Armstrong

Family/Friends Jeff Koppinger

Albert Pojuls Boyfriend

John Elway Jerry Rice and…

Five of you said: “No one”

who would you follow
Who Would You Follow?
  • Asked for your “favorite”, but why are they so?
  • Do they exhibit leadership?
  • Are there traits identified with successful leaders?

-list some

Are these traits applicable in all situations?

  • Predict leadership success by knowing a person’s traits?
  • Jennings, 1982, none after 50 years
  • No set of traits clearly predicts, Yukl

-increased likelihood, no guarantees

  • Note Yukl’s list of traits in text
  • Bennis: Four traits/competencies
characteristics of effective performance
Characteristics of Effective Performance
  • Bennis later updated the 4 traits:
  • Business literacy
  • People Skills
  • Conceptual Skills
  • Track Record
  • Taste
  • Judgment
  • Character
the flip side negative traits
The Flip Side: Negative Traits
  • McCall’s “Fatal Flaws”:
  • Insensitivity* Cold, aloof
  • Overly ambitious Untrustworthy*
  • Performance issues Overmanaging
  • Ineffective staffing Adapt w/Boss
  • Overdependent on No strategy


attitudinal approaches
Attitudinal Approaches
  • Ohio State
  • University of Michigan
  • Likert’s Management Systems

-starting point was U of M research

theory practice
  • Comes at just the right point in time
  • Begin use of instruments
  • Hersey suggests a good way to understand the attitudinal is to fill out the instrument--- we will.
  • There must a strong understanding of the theory, especially among leaders, to make it work
  • So…
time for us to define leadership
Time for Us to Define Leadership
  • Effective leaders are those who are able to obtain the cooperation of other people to harness the resources provided by that cooperation to the attainment of a goal.----Chemers, 1993
another definition
Another Definition
  • “Leadership occurs whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group, regardless of the reason. It may be for one’s own goals or for the goals of others, and these goals may not be congruent with organizational goals. It is defined as the process of influencing the activities (behavior) of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation”---Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson, 2001.
and how about
And How About…
  • The leader is “the individual in the group given the task of directing and coordinating task-relevant activities or who, in the absence of a designated leader, carries the primary responsibility or performing these functions in a group.” ---Fred Fiedler, 1967.
  • “If there’s a clear distinguishing feature about the process of leading, it’s in the distinction between mobilizing others to do and mobilizing others to want to do…leaders mobilize others to want to act because of the credibility they have.” ---Kouzes and Posner, 2001.
  • Leadership: The process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation”.”

HBJ, p. 79

best style of leadership
Best Style of Leadership
  • This is a “leading” question
  • A lot of research, a lot of uncertainty
  • It’s leader, situation, follower dependent

And on that note…

situational leadership
Situational Leadership
  • Natural Outgrowth of Deficiencies in other theories
  • No guarantees of effectiveness
  • No best style
  • Five situational models/theories that have received wide attention
the big five
The Big Five
  • Tannenbaum-Schmidt
  • Vroom-Yetten
  • House-Mitchell
  • Fiedler
  • Hersey-Blanchard
  • We will look in depth at last two
a look back
A Look Back
  • Stogdill OSU Studies Initiating Structure/


  • Coch Mich Studies Production orientation

Employee orientation

  • Likert Systems Employee centered/

Job centered

  • McGreg. Theory X & Y Negative assumptions

Positive assumptions

  • Argyris Patterns A & B Supervision, structure


key terms and concepts of all situational leadership
Key Terms and Concepts of all Situational Leadership
  • Process of leading is complex

-no one type of behavior will be effective all the time

  • Three main components of leadership process…

-The leader

-The follower(s)

-Other situational variables

fred fiedler and the contingency model
Fred Fiedler and the Contingency Model
  • Considered the “inventor” of contingency theory.
  • Three situational variables lead to favorable situation for leader
  • Task oriented/Relationship oriented
  • Supported by research (see fig. 5-2)
  • Definition
and how about50
And How About…
  • The leader is “the individual in the group given the task of directing and coordinating task-relevant activities or who, in the absence of a designated leader, carries the primary responsibility or performing these functions in a group.” ---Fred Fiedler, 1967.
  • So, what kind of leader are you?
  • Let’s find out…
leadership practices
Leadership Practices
  • Communicate Effectively
    • Ask rather than “tell” to help
    • A dose of sarcasm or words that hurt are always tough to swallow
    • Never yell (the message gets lost because people are startled by the sheer volume of your voice)
    • Respect people’s confidences

-taken from “What do Followers Expect of Leaders?” by Patti Holmes (1998)

fiedler on the mid range
Fiedler on the Mid-Range
  • Scores 65 – 82, “Extensive research on these middle LPC groups still needs to be conducted”, P. 50.
  • Factor analysis indicates that high and low LPC’s differ from middle groups, p. 50.
effective leadership
Effective Leadership
  • Efficiency is concerned with doing things right
  • Effectiveness is doing the right things

* Peter Drucker, as quoted in Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson (p. 126)

in depth on chapter 6
In-depth on Chapter 6
  • Does Leadership = Management?
  • Leadership is more encompassing
  • Management is a special part of leadership where the goals are first
  • Organizational vs. personal goals, which one is leadership?
  • Need to be able to distinguish
  • Definitions Handout…
  • Organizational Success
  • MBO
  • Management
  • Attempted Leadership
  • Leadership
  • Organizational Effectiveness
  • Parkinson’s Law
  • The Successful Leadership Continuum
  • Attempted leadership
  • Successful leadership
  • Effective leadership
  • Diagram
  • So far, considered mostly individuals
  • Effectiveness and impact on organization over time---Likert
  • 3 variables




  • Factors influencing the developments in an org. and its results.
  • Independent variables can be altered by the org. and its management
  • Not beyond org’s. control
  • Include: Leadership strategies, skills,

management decisions, policies and structure of org.

  • Causal variables have impact on intervening
  • For Likert: Intervening = Human
  • Intervening variables represent current condition of the internal state of org. (?), and are seen in such things as commitment to objectives, motivation, and morale; also group skills in leadership, communication, conflict resolution, decision making, and problem solving
output or end result
Output or End Result
  • Observed in organizational achievements ( typical eval. method)
  • Ways people in sport are measured
  • Profit center performance, Baldridge?
  • Move away from single measures of effectiveness---Vaill, Kaplan and Norton, Corporate Reputation survey
mcgregor on integration
McGregor on Integration
  • Integration diagrams
  • Develop one of two climates
  • Drucker 1950
  • Characteristics
  • Problems
style and effectiveness
Style and Effectiveness
  • Different situations = different styles
  • Task or Relationship Behavior

-not predictors of group performance

  • Supporting research
  • Leadership Style

-defined as the consistent behavior pattern that an individual uses when working through and with other people, as perceived by those people.

*that pattern or style also becomes somewhat predictable to those who work with them.

expectations the concept
Expectations: The Concept
  • Perceptions of appropriate behavior

- own role, roles of others

  • Define what to do (to an extent)
  • Shared expectations, meaning?
  • Environmental variables communicate role expectations to the leader---Constant interaction
style expectations
Style & Expectations
  • Leader value systems
  • Confidence in employees
  • Leader’s personal inclinations
  • Feelings of security

Perception of behavior

follower s style expectations
Follower’s Style/ Expectations
  • Vital to personal power
  • Adapt to follower behavior
  • Conditions for greater freedom

-Tannenbaum and Schmidt

Managing from the HEART

supervisor style expectations
Supervisor Style/Expectations
  • The leader’s leader
  • Not enough attention to this
  • Being a follower

-appropriate behavior?

  • Know supervisor expectations
  • Told vs. allowed to lead
situational approach to leadership hbj
Situational Approach to Leadership (HBJ)
  • Criticism of Fiedler and early SLT’s
  • Adjust behavior to fit situation
  • Transactional theory

-Leader style


-Develop a scheme for congruence

situational leadership approach con t
Situational Leadership Approach (con’t.)
  • Belief in importance of leader adaptability
  • Belief in the importance of willingness/readiness of followers
  • Belief that leader can learn/develop other styles of leadership
  • Developed the LEAD-self, LEAD-other
the lead
  • What does it measure?

-3 aspects of leader behavior


-Style Range

-Style Adaptability

  • Leadership Style

-defined as the consistent behavior pattern that an individual uses when working through and with other people, as perceived by those people.

*that pattern or style also becomes somewhat predictable to those who work with them.

the lead74
  • What does it measure?

-3 aspects of leader behavior


-Style Range

-Style Adaptability

follower or group readiness
Follower or Group Readiness
  • Chapter 7
  • Factors in a given environment



-boss (the leader’s leader)

-peers (associates)


-jobs demands

-available time

  • Most crucial interaction among the factors:

Between Leader and Follower

  • No leadership without someone following
  • Part of effectiveness

-clarify what followers are to do

readiness defined
Readiness Defined
  • Readiness: the extent to which a follower is able and willing to accomplish a task (HBJ, P. 175).

-not a personality quality

-more or lessready for specific tasks

-assess work group, as well as individual

components of readiness
Components of Readiness
  • Readiness (HBJ) has 2 components:



  • Each has its own components
readiness level
Readiness Level
  • Combination of ability/willingness
  • R1
  • R2
  • R3
  • R4
  • Definition

-Power is influence potential (HBJ p. 204)

-Induce of influence behavior (Etzioni, in HBJ, p. 206)

-power because of your position

-power derived from followers

seven types of power
Seven Types of Power
  • Coercive
  • Connection
  • Reward
  • Legitimate
  • Referent
  • Information
  • Expert
  • Def.: The perceived ability to provide sanctions, punishment, or consequences for not performing
  • Readiness level R 1 followers need guidance
connection power
Connection Power
  • Def.: The perceived association of the leader with influential persons or organizations
  • Avoid sanctions, but gain favor (R1, R2, telling and selling)
reward power
Reward Power
  • Def.: The perceived ability to provide things that people would like to have.
  • Unable but willing (R2) more likely to engage in new behavior
legitimate power
Legitimate Power
  • Def.: The perception that it is appropriate for the leader to make decisions because of title, role, or position in the organization
  • Selling/Participating styles, moderate ranges of readiness (R2,R3).
referent power
Referent Power
  • Def.: The perceived attractiveness of interacting with the leader
  • Insecure/Unwilling (R3), needs high relationship behavior (S3)
information power
Information Power
  • Def.: The perceived access to, or possession of, useful information
  • Based on perceived access to data, useful with R3,R4 followers
expert power
Expert Power
  • Def.: The perception that leader has relevant education, experience and expertise.
  • Competent/Confident followers (R4’s) would best be driven by Expert Power (S4)
best type of power
Best Type of Power?
  • No
  • Best for follower, probably, must continually gauge
using slt in training and development
Using SLT in Training and Development
  • Increasing effectiveness
  • Likert and the “effectiveness cycle”
  • Important to determine readiness
  • Important to match style
  • Increases effectiveness
  • Also, increase readiness
changing improving readiness
Changing (Improving) Readiness
  • Behavior modification
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Individual reinforcement
  • Reinforcement schedule
transformational change
Transformational Change
  • Transformation of an organization

-involves vital organizational change

-vital often means necessary/needed

  • Features of transformational change are distinct, unique
  • As we go through list, compare to transactional
  • Substantial change
    • Discontinuous
    • Not just incremental/fine tuning type
  • External forces
    • Globalization
    • SRWC example
  • Deep and pervasive
    • All parts and all levels
features continued
Features (continued)
  • New actions
    • Significantly different
    • Entirely new
    • Disruption of existing behavior patterns
    • Change of norms and core values
    • The whole organization changes
so transformation
So, transformation…
  • Starts beyond the organization
  • Includes realignment of mission, strategies, structure
  • Requires re-creation of the culture, and the behavioral processes of org.
what is a transformational leader then
What is a Transformational Leader Then?
  • Note on page 418, various characteristics listed
  • Focus here will be on Kouzes and Posner
    • Challenging the Process
    • Inspiring a Shared Vision
    • Enabling Others to Act
    • Modeling the Way
    • Encouraging the Heart
specific actions of leaders
Specific Actions of Leaders
  • Personal commitment
  • Status quo no longer viable
  • Clear vision on future of org.
  • Timely
  • Acknowledging
  • Defining and setting up
  • Regular stream of communication and recognition/reward
more on communication recognition reward
More on Communication, Recognition Reward
  • Deliberate influence process
  • Individual or group
  • Discontinuous change
  • Current state/function
  • The who organization
  • Driven by vision, beliefs, values
  • Urgent: perceive and think differently, perform differently