Introduction to Organizational Behavior. MGMT 360H Organizational Behavior Instructor: Marie S. Mitchell. Agenda. Part I: What’s OB? Part II: What are current trends in OB? Part III: What are the course requirements?. Part I: What’s OB?. Organizational Behavior Defined.
Introduction to Organizational Behavior MGMT 360H Organizational Behavior Instructor: Marie S. Mitchell
Agenda Part I: What’s OB? Part II: What are current trends in OB? Part III: What are the course requirements?
Organizational Behavior Defined • Organizational Behavior (OB) • The study of what people thin, feel and do in and around organizations • Organizations • Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose • Structured patterns of interactions • Coordinated tasks • Work toward some purpose
Organizational Behavior in Context Value System Organizational Behavior Personality Emotions Behavior Perceptions Motivation Learning Styles (Micro) Physical Attributes Cognitions KSAOs Conflict Teams (Meso) Leadership Stress Structure Organizational Development Culture Organizational Theory Industry Environment Organizational Change (Macro)
Why Study Organizational Behavior Understand organizational events Organizational Behavior Research Predict organizational events Influence organizational events
Organizational Behavior Anchors Multidisciplinary Anchor Organizational Behavior Anchors
Organizational Behavior Anchors Multidisciplinary Anchor Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic Research Anchor
Systematic Research Anchor • Scientific Method • Understand, predict and control • Provide precise and operational definitions • Use reliable and valid measures • Follow systematic methods • Ensure results are cumulative • Grounded Theory Approach
Organizational Behavior Anchors Multidisciplinary Anchor Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic Research Anchor Contingency Anchor
Contingency Anchor • “It depends” factors • Idea that a particular action may have different consequences in different situations and with different individuals • Discovering • Which “conditions” apply to understand behavior and organizational events
Organizational Behavior Anchors Multidisciplinary Anchor Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic Research Anchor Multiple Levels of Analysis Anchor Contingency Anchor
Organizational processes Team processes Individual processes Multiple Levels of Analysis Anchor
Organizational Behavior Anchors Multidisciplinary Anchor Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic Research Anchor Open Systems Anchor Multiple Levels of Analysis Anchor Contingency Anchor
Open Systems Anchor • Open systems • Organizations that take their sustenance from the environment and, in turn, affect that environment through their output
Open Systems Anchor of OB • Need to monitor and adapt to environment • External environment -- natural and social conditions outside the organization • Receive inputs from environment; transform them into outputs back to the environment • Stakeholders – anyone with a vested interest in the organization • Organizations consist of interdependent parts (subsystems) that need to coordinate
Feedback Feedback Feedback Feedback Open Systems Anchor of OB
Purpose of OB: Intellectual Capitol • Human Capital • KSAOs of employees (e.g., knowledge, education, experience, skill, abilities) • Social Capital • Relationships of employees (e.g., networks, connections, friends) • Structural Capital • Knowledge captured and retained in organizational systems and structures
Knowledge Management • Defined • Structuring activity to improve organization’s capacity to acquire, share and use knowledge in ways that improve its survival and success
Knowledge sharing Knowledge use Knowledge Management Knowledge acquisition • Hiring talent • Acquiring firms • Individual learning • Experimentation • Communication • Communities of practice • Awareness • Freedom to apply
Organizational Memory • The storage and preservation of intellectual capital • Retain intellectual capital by • Keeping knowledgeable employees • Transferring knowledge to others • Transferring human capital to structural capital • Successful companies also unlearn
Trends in OB • Globalization • Information Technology • Changing Workforce • Emerging Employment Relationships • Workplace Values and Ethics
Globalization • Defined • Economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world • Effects of globalization • New organizational structures • Different forms of communication • More diverse workforce. • More competition, mergers, work intensification and demands for work flexibility
Changing Workforce • U.S. Descriptive Statistics within 50 years • 14% African American • 1 of 4 employees will be Hispanic • 8% Asian American • 50% of paid workforce = women • Age issues • Older staying, younger coming in • Clash of generational ties!
Changing Workforce and Diversity First language Life experiences Religion • Workforce has increasing diversity along several dimensions • Primary categories • gender, age, ethnicity, etc. • Secondary categories • some control over (e.g. education, marital status) Geographic location Occupation Ethnicity Race Marital status Mental/physical ability Sexual orientation Behavioral style Gender Parental status Age Education Work style Income Work experience
Changing Workforce Implications • Leverage diversity advantage • Adjust to the new workforce
Employment Relationships • Work-life balance • Number one indicator of career success • Priority for many young people looking for new jobs • Contingent work • No explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment, or minimum hours of work can vary in a nonsystematic way • Employability • “New deal” employment relationship • Continuously learn new skills
Employability vs Job Security Employability Job Security • Limited job security • Jobs are temporary • Career self-management • High emphasis on skill development • Lifetime job security • Jobs are permanent • Company manages career • Low emphasis on skill development
Virtual Work • Using information technology to perform one’s job away from the traditional physical workplace • Telecommuting (telework) • Working from home, usually internet connection to office • Virtual teams • Operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries with members who communicate mainly through electronic technologies
Focus on Values and Ethics • Values • Stable, long-lasting believes • Guide decisions and actions • Organizational culture • Shared assumptions, values, and beliefs • Govern the way employees think and act • Framed by • Individual norms, beliefs, culture • Demographic culture • Industry culture • Knowledge culture
Ethics • Ethics • Moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong • Corporate social responsibility (CSR) • Organization’s moral obligation • Influenced by: • Stakeholders • Economics • Society • Environment
Values and Ethics • More to come…
Individual Assignments Exam 1: 100 points Exam 2: 100 points Exam 3: 100 points Self assessments (5@10 pts): 50 points Class participation: 100 points Total points: 450 (58% overall grade)
Exams • Format • Multiple choice, true/false, short-essay, essay • Graded Exams • Must be returned to the instructor or students will receive a zero as a grade • Will review exams in-class
Self-Assessments • Build awareness about yourself • Help you become a better self-manager and build upon your talents and traits • 1-3 paragraph assessment • Your computed assessment score • A description of what that score means • An explanation of whether or not you believe the assessment is accurate • Justify your point with examples
Class Participation • Actively engage in class discussion • Showing up to class is not participating • See Syllabus for metric used for assessing class participation
Team Assignments Simulations (2@50pts): 100 points Manager Hot Seat Evals (2@50pts): 100 points Report and presentation: 125 points Total points: 325 (41% overall grade)
Simulations • Team = fictional company • Must have 50+ employees • Team members must be familiar with product/service • Conducted in class • Evaluate scenario provided using simulated company • Only have space and time provided in-class • Graded based on: • Evaluative skills • Use of innovative and creative ideas • Inclusion of class discussion/readings • Application to team’s business and problem scenario • Solutions that don’t cause more problems
Manager Hot Seat Evaluations • Interactive software • See syllabus for how to acquire it • Software provides real manager in a problem situation • Team must evaluate the manager’s actions • Out-of-class team assignment
Manager Hot Seat Evaluations Must include: • Team’s name and each team member in attendance for the activity • 1 paragraph “Problem Statement” • Describe the scenario and issues involved • Grade the manager’s performance (0-100 scale) • Provide an explanation for manager grade • What did manager do correctly/incorrectly or good/bad? • How team respond to each question and why? • What were the differences in how manager responded and team responded – and which was best • What did the team learn, based on course material?
Case Report and Presentation • The Report • Write a case study, based on actual research • Evaluate your case study, based on standard case study evaluative criteria • 50 points • The Presentation • 15 minute presentation, summarizing the report • 50 points • Questions to a Presenting Team • Must ask one other presenting team (TBA) 2 questions • 25 points
Case Studies • Defined • Written representations that simulate business situations • Include • A significant business issue or issues • A sufficient amount of info to base conclusions • No stated conclusions • Basic Team Requirement • Define the situation • Provide analysis of the situation • Draw conclusions about the situation
Case Study Situational Types • Problems • Define problem and explain why it occurred • Decisions • Describe decision (scope, consequences) and analyze it (decision options, criteria for how it was derived) • Evaluations • Judge the worth, value or effectiveness of performance, actions, or outcomes based on evidence and criteria
Effective Case Analyses • Individual Requirement • Read the case before class • Think and evaluate while reading • Take notes on your thoughts to discuss with your team • Team Requirement • Synergize thoughts into team evaluation during class
Team Case Study Write-Up • Identify the situation • Generate a position statement • Provide evidence to support the position statement • Provide an action plan regarding how the team would respond to next steps
1. Identify the Situation • Is the situation a problem, decision or evaluation? • What’s the problem, decision or evaluation in case reading? • What are the causal paths that lead to the problem, decision or evaluation or how did it happen?
Questions to Consider to Evaluate the Situation • Who/what’s the involved? • What’s the problem, decision or evaluation? • What’s the significance of it? • Who’s responsible for it? • What’s at stake? • What’s possible criteria for the problem, decision or evaluation? • What might be the most important criteria for this situation? • Are any of the important criteria mentioned in the case?