Yamato Period • 300-710. • Chinese cultural influence. • Aspects of China that were adopted included: • Confucianism. • Buddhism. • Art & architecture. • Government structure. • Language, especially kanji characters. • Prince Shotoku, 573-621 AD • Spread Chinese culture and Confucianism. • Allowed Buddhist sects to grow and develop. • Created a new governmental structure. • Including a 17 Article Constitution in 604 AD.
A Divine Emperor • Prior to 400 AD clans ruled separate areas of Japan. • Yamato Clan produced the first emperor • Emperor considered descendant of Sun Goddess and most important person in Shinto • Japan’s native religion. • Emperor respected for religious power, not political power. • Clans fought to be emperor’s advisors.
Nobles Gain Power • Earned trust of Emperor, which gained them control. • Married daughters of princes. • Making sure grandsons were related to both families. • Nobles received most of government’s high-ranking posts. • Nobles dominated emperor. • Emperor’s role became almost completely ceremonial • Nobles advised Emperor to give shoen to nobles and clans. • Shoen is a grant of land. • Similar to manor or fief in European Feudalism. • By the end of the Yamato period, Japan was divided into 5000 shoen and the government had almost no land
Heian Period • 764-1156. • Characteristics of the period: • Growth of large land estates. • Chinese art and literature spread. • Writing and artistic style. • Personal diaries and novels • The Tale of Genji. • Etiquette and highly refined court life. • Began to move away from Chinese models of religion and government. • Buddhism evolved into Zen Buddhism. • Japanese form of Buddhism that focuses on mental and self discipline. • Not influenced by Chinese civil service system.
Refined Court Life of the Nobles • Maintained elegant appearance. • Elaborate clothing & makeup. • Practiced restrained behavior. • Rude to laugh with one’s mouth open. • Always maintained decorum. • Letters had to be folded properly • Devoted leisure time to pursuing pastimes. • Modeled after influences from Chinese culture
Kamakura Period • 1185-1333. • Minamoto Yoritomo. • Founded the Kamakura Shogunate. • Considered the beginning of the Medieval Japan. • Chinese influence declined. • Increased influence of court system. • Development of Feudalism in Japan.
Japanese Feudalism • What is Feudalism? • Why did Japan need it?
Reason #1: Nobles vs. Nobles • Isolated court life for court nobles. • Provincial nobles were rugged, independent, and led private armies • Became more powerful as court nobles isolated themselves • Constantly battled with one another over control of the provinces
Reason #2: Aftermath of Mongols • Mongols attempt to invade Japan. • Mongols are not successful. • Sense of national unity develops. • Belief in superior culture. • War debt. • Unpaid samurai terrorized peasants for money. • Kamakura Shogunate driven from power by dissatisfied samurai
Reason #3: Battle over Governmental Control • Taira & Minamoto clans fought for control. • Minamoto drove Taira from power. • Beginnings of Feudalism: • Under Minamoto rule, samurai warriors dominate Japanese society. • Samurai took control of government. • Created Bakufu. • military government • Emperor was only a religious leader of Japan
Japanese Feudalism • What is Feudalism? • Why did Japan need it? • Feudalism is a political, economic, and social system. • The system is based on loyalty, land holdings, and military serve/protection. • The code of Bushido. • Fidelity, politeness, virility, and simplicity. • Seppuku. • Ritual suicide • Honored way for Samurai to die. • Commonly called Hara-kiri.
Structure of Contact in Japanese Feudalism Shogun Land - Shoen Loyalty Land - Shoen Daimyo Daimyo Loyalty Samurai Samurai Samurai Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant
Bakufu • Shogun • military & political leader • Daimyo • high-ranking samurai lord who provided shogun with warriors in exchange for land • Samurai • lower-ranking warriors who served their daimyo in exchange for small manors • Peasants • lowest class: worked land for their lord
European Feudalism • Developed after the fall the Roman Empire. • Based on the same principles as Japan. • The code of Chivalry • Justice, loyalty, defense, courage, faith, humility, and nobility. • Manorialism was only present in European Feudalism, not Japanese Feudalism. • What’s the difference between Manorialism and Feudalism? • Manorialism is the economy system of the fief. • Feudalism is the economic, political, and social structure of the country or region as a whole.
Structure of Contact in European Feudalism King Land - Fief Loyalty Land - Fief Lord Lord Loyalty Knight Knight Knight Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant