The Cold War: Decade by Decade - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Cold War: Decade by Decade

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  1. The Cold War: Decade by Decade U.S.versus U.S.S.R. 1940s & 1950s

  2. What was the Cold War? • Definition: • A struggle over political differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union carried on by means short of direct military action or war • How was it “fought”? • Spying, propaganda, diplomacy, alliances, secret operations and foreign aid

  3. Two Superpowers:Differing goals United States World’s richest country Cities and factories remained intact Encourage democracy and prevent communism Rebuild European governments to promote trade Reunite Germany to stabilize it and Europe Soviet Union 50 times more deaths Many Soviet cities were destroyed Encouraged worldwide communism Protect its borders by controlling Eastern Europe Keep Germany divided to prevent its waging war again

  4. The Cold War: 1940s • Policy of Containment • Began in 1945 • American policy that attempted to restrict communism to its current border • Continued throughout the Cold War

  5. The Cold War: 1940s • The Truman Doctrine (1945) • Truman went before a joint session of Congress to appeal for $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey • Why? • To prevent the further spread of communism

  6. The Cold War: 1940s • The Marshall Plan (1948-1951) • Named after Secretary of State George Marshall • A “rebuilding” program • $13 billion in aid was sent to Western European nations • Why?

  7. The Cold War: 1940s • NATO (1947) • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Military alliance with the purpose of defending all members from outside attack • Who was in NATO? (10 Western European Nations + U.S. & Canada) • Warsaw Pact (1955) • Formed in retaliation against NATO • Who was in the Warsaw Pact? (Soviet Union, E. Germany, Czech, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, & Albania)

  8. The Cold War: 1940s • Berlin Airlift (June, 1948) • GB, France & the U.S. consolidated West Berlin • In retaliation, Soviet troops blockaded highways, railways & shut off West Berlin’s electricity • To aid the people, British & American planes spent 11 months dropping supplies… • The blockade was lifted in 1949

  9. The Cold War: 1950s • Stalin died in 1953; replaced by Nikita Khrushchev • “De-Stalinization” • Reversed some of Stalin’s policies • Promised better wages • More consumer goods • More freedom to artists & intellectuals • Reduction of terror by the secret “police”

  10. The Cold War: 1950s • Peaceful Coexistence • Khrushchev’s policy to compete with the west but avoid war • Encouraged nations to follow communism • Improved housing conditions • Increased production of consumer goods • Put emphasis on technological research

  11. The Cold War: 1950s • The Hydrogen Bomb • Thousands of times more powerful than Atomic bomb • U.S. tested first H-bomb in 1952 • Soviets tested H-bomb in 1953

  12. The Cold War: 1950s

  13. The Cold War: 1950s • The Space Race • Began in 1957 when the Soviets launched Sputnik • The U.S. “retaliated” soon after • Created NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration) • Began to put a greater emphasis on math and science in the classroom

  14. The Cold War: 1950s • Dwight D. Eisenhower became president in 1952 • His Secretary of State was John Dulles • Implemented the policies of massive retaliation and brinkmanship (willingness to go to the brink, or edge of war)

  15. The Cold War: 1950s • Cuba & Communism: • Batista was overthrown by Fidel Castro • Eisenhower cuts off trade to Cuba • Castro turns to Soviets for support • CIA begins training non-communist Cuban exiles to overthrow the government in Cuba…(to be continued)