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AP World History: Absolutism in Spain. Period 4. I What was absolutism?. European monarchs in the 16 th and 17 th centuries sought to have absolute , or unlimited power. Due to divine right : belief that monarchs receive their power directly from god, and are responsible to god alone.

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i what was absolutism
I What was absolutism?
  • European monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries sought to have absolute, or unlimited power.
  • Due to divine right: belief that monarchs receive their power directly from god, and are responsible to god alone.
  • Belief that an absolute monarch would have greater control and efficiency than a monarch with less power.
ii spain becomes a nation state
II Spain Becomes a Nation-State
  • Spain united as a nation-state when Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile in 1469. They conquered Granada (in southern Spain) in 1492.
  • In 1492 they began the Inquisition; they forced all non-Catholics to convert or leave Spain.
  • In 1492 they also funded Columbus’s voyage to find an Atlantic Ocean route to the Indies.
was columbus jewish
Was Columbus Jewish?

“…The Jews who were forced to renounce Judaism and embrace Catholicism were known as "Conversos," or converts. There were also those who feigned conversion, practicing Catholicism outwardly while covertly practicing Judaism, the so-called "Marranos," or swine… Recently, a number of Spanish scholars, such as Jose Erugo, Celso Garcia de la Riega, Otero Sanchez and Nicholas Dias Perez, have concluded that Columbus was a Marrano, whose survival depended upon the suppression of all evidence of his Jewish background in face of the brutal, systematic ethnic cleansing…” – CNN, May 24 2012

iii hapsburgs in spain
III Hapsburgs in Spain
  • During the Age of Absolutism, the Hapsburgs remained Europe’s most powerful royal family.
  • 1556 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retired and divided up his Empire.

- His son Philip II inherited Spain, the Netherlands and overseas colonies

Hapsburg Ruler and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

iii philip ii ruled 1556 1598
III Philip II (ruled 1556 – 1598)
  • King Philip II made Madrid (a city in Castile) the capital of Spain.
  • He built El Escorial that served as a royal palace, monastery and tomb.
  • 1567 he forced the Dutch to convert to Catholicism, leading to a revolt. With help from the British, the Netherlands declared independence from Spain in 1581.

Who wants to kiss me?

v spanish armada
V Spanish Armada
  • As retaliation for England helping the Dutch, Philip II sent 130 ships and 33,000 men to England in May 1588. 2 months later they entered the English Channel.
  • England had faster and more maneuverable ships with longer range cannons.

An armada is a fleet of warships that is organized to carry out a mission.

the spanish armada continued
The Spanish Armada Continued…

My loving people, we have been persuaded by some, that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear; I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects. And therefore I am come amongst you at this time, not as for my recreation or sport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down, for my God, and for my kingdom, and for my people, my honor and my blood, even the dust. I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart of a king, and of a king of England, too; and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms: to which, rather than any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will take up arms; I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble and worthy subject; not doubting by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and by your valor in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over the enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

Queen Elizabeth I - 1588

the spanish armada continued1
The Spanish Armada Continued…

C) Spanish ships had to retreat to the stormy north sea after running out of water and ammunition.

D) Some of the Spanish ships sank near the rocky coasts of Ireland and Scotland.

E) Defeat of the Spanish Armada signaled the downfall of Spain as a global naval power.

vi spain s golden age
VI Spain’s Golden Age
  • El Greco (1541 – 1614) was a Spanish painter born in Greece. He painted Spanish nobles and religious themes.
  • Diego Velazquez (1599 – 1660) was the court painter to King Philip IV.
  • Miguel de Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote. It pokes fun at medieval chivalry, and is considered to be Europe’s first modern novel.
don quixote
Don Quixote

“I know who I am and who I may be, if I choose.” - Don Quixote

“Thou hast seen nothing yet.” – Don Quixote

focus questions
Focus Questions
  • How and why did Spain come under absolutism?
  • Was Spain wrong for sending the Armada? How did the Spanish Armada alter the course of Spanish history?
  • What were the greatest achievements of the Spanish Golden Age?