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Chapter 18: Conflict and Absolutism. Europe in Crisis. Spain’s Conflicts. Militant Catholicism King Philip II “The Most Catholic King” 1500: Spain expelled all Jews and Muslims Claimed Spain as Catholic Kingdom Nation chosen by God to save Catholic faith The Netherlands

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spain s conflicts
Spain’s Conflicts
  • Militant Catholicism
    • King Philip II “The Most Catholic King”
      • 1500: Spain expelled all Jews and Muslims
      • Claimed Spain as Catholic Kingdom
      • Nation chosen by God to save Catholic faith
    • The Netherlands
      • Calvinists and others resented the control of Philip II
      • 1566-1609: War breaks out
        • William the Silent led the Catholics
        • Eventual truce was reached for 12 year period
        • Netherlands created own identity and established Republic
protestantism in england
Protestantism in England
  • 1558: Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen
    • Leader of a Protestant movement once again in England
    • Established new “Act of Supremacy”
      • Only supreme governor of church and state
    • Politically tried to please everyone
      • Moderately Protestant
      • Always sided with the weaker country in the battle between France and Spain
  • 1588: Spanish Armada sent to invade England
    • Completely unprepared and defeated
    • Led to the downfall of Spanish control
    • Country eventually went bankrupt
french wars of religion 1562 1598
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
  • The Huguenots
    • French protestants
      • 7% of population but 40-50% of nobility
      • Seen as a threat to the Crown
    • Henry IV (Huguenot leader) becomes king
      • Converts to Catholicism (Why?)
      • 1598: Edict of Nantes
        • Made Catholicism official religion of France
        • Huguenots will be allowed to worship and enjoy political privileges
crises in europe
Crises in Europe
  • Inflation: Rapid Increase in prices
    • Brought about by demand for land and food
  • Economic Crises
    • Spain
      • Depended primarily on silver from mines
      • Mines were depleted
    • Italy
      • Decline from time of Renaissance
crises in europe1
Crises in Europe
  • Witchcraft Trials
    • Witchcraft culturally relevant for centuries
    • Inquisition brought about fear of it
      • Religiously different and frightening
      • 100,000 brought to trial
      • Usually single women over the age of 50
  • Thirty Years’ War (Treat of Westphalia)
    • Began with Calvinists wanting recognition
    • Motive
      • Religion: Catholics vs Calvinists
      • Political and Territorial
        • Wanted to defeat and carve up Holy Roman Empire
conflict and absolutism in europe

Conflict and Absolutism in Europe

War and Revolution in England

the stuart dynasty
The Stuart Dynasty
  • James I (King of Scotland)
    • Believed in divine right of kings; Parliament did not
    • Religion
      • Pushed the motives of the Anglican Church
      • Puritans (Protestant-Calvinists) wanted church to be more Protestant
    • Number of nobles turned Puritan
      • Threatens his power
the stuart dynasty1
The Stuart Dynasty
  • Charles I (Son of James)
    • Took a similar stance as his father
    • Parliament passes Petition of Rights
      • Limits King’s ability to tax, imprison, etc.
      • Charles ignores it
    • Imposed more Anglican rituals
      • Puritans move to America
    • Disregard for people led to war
the civil war
The Civil War
  • Cavaliers (Royalists) vs. Roundheads (Parliament)
    • Roundheads would eventually win thanks to Cromwell
  • Oliver Cromwell
    • Leader of New Model Army; Military genius
      • NMA: made up of Extreme Puritans
    • Cromwell purges Parliament of all Royalists (Rump Parliament)
      • Executes Charles I in 1649
      • Commonwealth is born from it
the commonwealth
The Commonwealth
  • Cromwell eventually abolishes the monarchy and the House of Lords (Upper House)
    • Declares England a Commonwealth
    • Over time, forced to destroy all of Parliament
    • Creates military dictatorship
    • Dies in 1658
the restoration
The Restoration
  • Charles II
    • Brought to throne to continue Stuart Dynasty
    • Parliament kept most of the power though
    • Religion
      • Sympathetic towards Catholics
      • Suspended all laws against Catholics and Puritans
      • Parliament passes Test Act
        • Anglicans only for major offices
    • Converts to Catholicism on deathbed
the restoration1
The Restoration
  • James II (Brother of Charles II)
    • A devout Catholic
    • Gives many high ranking offices to Catholics
    • Why did Parliament allow him to do so?
      • Heir to throne a Protestant so things would go back to normal when James died
      • James marries a Catholic and has male heir
        • Threatens Catholic Dynasty
    • Leads to an overthrow of the dynasty
glorious revolution
Glorious Revolution
  • Nobles ask William or Orange and Mary (James daughter) to come take over England
  • Why called the Glorious Revolution?
    • Almost no bloodshed
    • James’ men desert before battle
    • William and Mary become king and queen
  • Changes to England
    • Toleration Act: Puritans public worship
    • Destroyed idea of divine right
    • People could have trial by jury and guns
what is absolutism
What is Absolutism?
  • Absolutism
    • Ruler holds total power of government
    • Associated with divine rights of king
    • Seen in use in France, Spain, Prussia, and Russia
    • France and Louis XIV is the greatest example
france before louis xiv
France before Louis XIV
  • France in a period of struggle over power
  • Both Louis XIII and Louis XIV children when given the throne
  • Both had ministers run the country until they were of age to run the country
  • Louis XIII had Cardinal Richelieu
  • Louis XIV had Cardinal Mazarin
france before louis xiv1
France before Louis XIV
  • Cardinal Richelieu
    • Royal minister under Louis XIII
    • Strengthened the power of monarchy
      • Huguenots became a threat in society
        • Had political and military rights removed
        • Allowed them to keep religious rights
      • Set up a spy network to keep track of coups
      • Executed anyone conspiring against the throne
louis xiv in power
Louis XIV in Power
  • Age 23: Desires to be real king (Bourbon Dynasty)
    • Known as a fun loving person
    • Not taken seriously
    • Claimed to be Sun King
      • Source of light for all of France
    • Key to Power
      • Total control of central policymaking
louis xiv in power1
Louis XIV in Power
  • Versailles
    • Establishes Royal Court
    • Serves 3 purposes
      • 1. Personal household of king
      • 2. Chief offices of state
      • 3. Place where powerful people came looking for favors
louis xiv in power2
Louis XIV in Power
  • Greatest Danger to Louis XIV
    • Nobles and Royal Princes
      • Felt like they should play role in government
      • Louis felt otherwise
      • Removed them from royal council
      • Gave them court jobs that kept them busy while not allowing them to make policies
louis xiv in power3
Louis XIV in Power
  • What kind of control did Louis XIV actually have?
    • In charge of:
      • Foreign Policy
      • The Church (Catholicism)
      • Taxes
    • Not in charge of:
      • Local level policies
      • Different cities had different laws
      • Bribed officials to get more local power
louis xiv in power4
Louis XIV in Power
  • Religion
    • Devout Catholic
    • Wanted to maintain Catholic presence
    • Anti-Protestant policy
      • Destroyed Huguenot churches
      • Closed Huguenot schools
      • 200,000 fled France because of it
louis xiv in power5
Louis XIV in Power
  • Jean Baptiste Colbert
    • Controller general of finances
    • Kept France financially sound
      • Increased wealth through mercantilism
      • Decreased the number of imports (Tariffs on imports)
      • Subsidized new industries
      • Built roads and canals for transportation
louis xiv in power6
Louis XIV in Power
  • Military
    • Standing Army of 400,000
    • Conducted wars during most of reign in Europe
    • Put member of his family in charge in Spain
legacy of louis xiv
Legacy of Louis XIV
  • How did his reign affect France?
    • Left country surrounded by enemies
    • Majority of France in poverty
    • Even though he maintained power, the common people suffered
    • Looking down the road, this is the beginning of the movement towards the French Revolution
emergence of prussia
Emergence of Prussia
  • Frederick William the Great Elector
    • Established the Prussian state
    • With limited natural boundaries, established large army
    • Created General War Commissariat
      • Created taxes to support army
      • Overseer of the military
    • Junkers (aristocrats) served as officers in the army
austrian empire
Austrian Empire
  • Austrian Hapsburgs
    • Created empire covering Austria, Hungary, and Czech Republic
    • Had issues become an absolutist state
      • Never had centralized government
      • Too many different groups of people
      • Only thing tying everyone together is service to Hapsburgs
russia
Russia
  • Ivan IV
    • Became the first czar of Russia
    • Better known as Ivan the Terrible
    • Did many horrible deeds to expand country
  • Peter the Great
    • The most prominent member of Romanov family
    • Took reign in 1689
    • Wanted to Westernize Russia
russia1
Russia
  • Peter the Great
    • Westernization
      • Modernized the army and navy
      • Peasants drafted for 25 year stints into army
      • Created army of 210,000
      • Ordered a book of etiquette for Russia
        • How men and women should act and dress
      • Wanted to have port access to the West (Baltic Sea)
    • Government
      • Divided country into provinces
      • Wanted to create a “police state”
    • People did not have the same feeling about service